OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 2 — Jan. 18, 2010
  • pp: 1330–1335

Experimental demonstration of tunable phase in a thermochromic infrared-reflectarray metamaterial

D.J. Shelton, K.R. Coffey, and G. D. Boreman  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 1330-1335 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (179 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



For the first time, a tunable reflected phase reflectarray is demonstrated in the thermal infrared. This is done using thermochromic VO2 square-patch elements in a reflectarray metamaterial configuration. A sixty degree change in reflected phase is measured using a Twyman-Green interferometer, and FTIR measurements show that the resonance reflection minima shifts from 9.2 to 11.2 μm as the sample is heated from 45 through 65 °C. These results are in agreement with finite-element method simulations using the optical properties of VO2 which are measured by infrared ellipsometry.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: December 1, 2009
Revised Manuscript: December 29, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: December 30, 2009
Published: January 12, 2010

D. J. Shelton, K. R. Coffey, and G. D. Boreman, "Experimental demonstration of tunable phase in a thermochromic infrared-reflectarray metamaterial," Opt. Express 18, 1330-1335 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Shelton, J. Ginn, and G. Boreman, “Bandwidth variations in conformal infrared frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Antennas Propag. International Symposium, 3976 (2007).
  2. J. Ginn, D. Shelton, P. Krenz, B. Lail, and G. Boreman, “Altering infrared metamaterial performance through metal resonance damping,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 074304 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. B. Monacelli, J. Pryor, B. A. Munk, D. Kotter, and G. Boreman, “Infrared frequency selective surface based on circuit-analog square loop design,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(2), 745–752 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Ginn, B. Lail, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Planar infrared binary phase reflectarray,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 779–781 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Tharp, B. Lail, B. Munk, and G. Boreman, “Design and demonstration of an infrared meanderline phase retarder,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(11), 2983–2988 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Split ring resonator for infrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 043113 (2009).
  8. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. F. Sievenpiper, J. H. Schaffner, H. J. Song, R. Y. Loo, and G. Tangonan, “Two-dimensional beam steering using an electrically tunable impedance surface,” IEEE Tran. Ann. Prop. 51(10), 2713–2722 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-18330 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Laffez, M. Zaghrioui, L. Reversat, and P. Ruello, “Electron doped (Sm1-x,Cax)MnO3 perovskite manganite as potential infrared thermochromic swith,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081909 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Goodenough, “The two components of crystallographic transition in VO2,” J. Solid State Chem. 3(4), 490–500 (1971). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurallydriven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafest timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. M. H. Lee and M. G. Kim, “RTA and stoichiometry effect on the thermochromism of VO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 286(1-2), 219–222 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. F. Guinneton, L. Sauques, J. C. Valmalette, F. Cros, and J. R. Gavarri, “Optimized infrared switching properties in thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films: role of deposition process and microstructure,” Thin Solid Films 446(2), 287–295 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Soltani, M. Chaker, E. Haddad, R. V. Kruzelecky, and D. Nikanpour, “Optical switching of vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by reactive pulsed laser deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(3), 859 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. F. C. Case, “Influence of ion beam parameters on the electrical and optical properties of ion-assisted reactively evaporated vanadium dioxide thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5(4), 1762 (1987). [CrossRef]
  20. D. J. Shelton, J. Tharp, G. Zummo, W. Folks, and G. D. Boreman, “Fabrication of periodic microsctructures on flexible polyimide membranes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 1827 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. B. A. Munk, Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design (Wiley, 2000), Chap. 9.
  22. E. E. Chain, “Optical properties of vanadium dioxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films,” Appl. Opt. 30(19), 2782 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Guinneton, L. Sauques, J. C. Valmalette, F. Cros, and J. R. Gavarri, “Role of surface defects and microstructure in infrared optical properties of thermochomic VO2 materials,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 66(1), 63–73 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited