OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 21 — Oct. 11, 2010
  • pp: 21873–21882

All-optical technique for modulation format conversion from on-off-keying to alternate-mark-inversion

J. M. Dailey, R. P. Webb, and R. J. Manning  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 21, pp. 21873-21882 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1232 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We propose and numerically investigate for the first time a novel all-optical on-off-keying to alternate-mark-inversion modulation format converter operating at 40 Gbps employing a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). We demonstrate that this SOA-MZI operates as a pulse subtractor, and in the absence of patterning will produce perfectly phase inverted pulses regardless of the individual SOA phase excursions. We use a comprehensive computer model to illustrate the impact of patterning on the output phase modulation, which is quantified through the definition of the phase compression factor.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
(250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: April 30, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 20, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2010
Published: September 30, 2010

J. M. Dailey, R. P. Webb, and R. J. Manning, "All-optical technique for modulation format conversion from on-off-keying to alternate-mark-inversion," Opt. Express 18, 21873-21882 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. X. Zheng, D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Ye, V. Bu, K. McCallion, H. Xu, M. Deutsch, H. Ereifej, R. Lewen, J. O. Wesstrom, R. Schatz, and P. J. Rigole, “Generation of RZ-AMI using a widely tuneable modulated grating Y-branch chirp managed laser,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC-NFOEC2010), paper OThE5.
  3. K. S. Cheng and J. Conradi, “Reduction of pulse-to-pulse interaction using alternative RZ formats in 40-Gb/s systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 98–100 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, Y. Su, and J. Leuthold, “40-Gb/s return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI) transmission over 2000 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 766–768 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, “40 Gbit/s signal format conversion from NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 248(4-6), 419–422 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. W. Kaiser, T. Wuth, M. Wichers, and W. Rosenkranz, “Reduced complexity optical duobinary 10-Gb/s transmitter setup resulting in an increased transmission distance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 884–886 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. S. B. Jun, K. J. Park, K. Hoon, H. S. Chung, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Passive optical NRZ-to-RZ converter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC2004), paper ThN1.
  8. Q. Li, T. Ye, Y. Lu, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “All-optical NRZ-to-AMI conversion using linear filtering effect of silicon microring resonator,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7(1), 12–14 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. G.-W. Lu, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “A simple AMI-RZ transmitter based on single-arm intensity modulator and optical delay interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 35–40 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. P. J. Winzer and J. Leuthold, “Return-to-zero modulator using a single NRZ drive signal and an optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1298–1300 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop-mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 834–841 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. I. Kang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, M. Dinu, S. Cabot, M. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, N. Dutta, A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “All-optical XOR and XNOR operations at86.4 Gb/s using a pair of semiconductor optical amplifier Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19062–19066 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Billes, J. C. Simon, B. Kowalski, M. Henry, G. Michaud, P. Lamouler, and F. Alard, “20 Gbit/s optical 3R regenerator using SOA based Mach-Zehnder interferometer gate,” in 11th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communications and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (IOCC-ECOC1997), 269–272 vol.262.
  14. J. M. Dailey, S. K. Ibrahim, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, S. Lardenois, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “42.6 Gbit/s fully integrated all-optical XOR gate,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1047–1049 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39(1), 79–81 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Lykke Danielsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 942–954 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, “Regenerative all optical wavelength conversion of 40-Gb/s DPSK signals using a semiconductor optical amplifier Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2005), 29–30 vol.26.
  18. F. Koyama and K. Oga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 87–93 (1988). [CrossRef]
  19. R. D. Gitlin, J. F. Hayes, and S. B. Weinstein, Data Communication Principles (Plenum Press, 1992).
  20. J. M. Dailey and T. L. Koch, “Simple Rules for Optimizing Asymmetries in SOA-Based Mach-Zehnder Wavelength Converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1480–1488 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. R. P. Webb, J. M. Dailey, and R. J. Manning, “Pattern compensation in SOA-based gates,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13502–13509 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Bischoff, M. L. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Improving the all-optical response of SOAs using a modulated holding signal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(5), 1303–1308 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical Regeneration at 40 Gb/s and Beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2779–2790 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 2
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited