OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 22 — Oct. 25, 2010
  • pp: 22637–22650

Kramers–Kronig relation between nonlinear absorption and refraction of C60 and C70

Chen-Cheng Wu, Tai-Min Liu, Tai-Ying Wei, Li Xin, Yi-Ci Li, Li-Shu Lee, Che-Kai Chang, Jaw-Luen Tang, Sidney S. Yang, and Tai-Huei Wei  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 22, pp. 22637-22650 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1385 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Using the Z-scan technique with 532 nm 16 picosecond laser pulses, we observe reverse saturable absorption and positive nonlinear refraction of toluene solutions of both C60 and C70. By deducting the positive Kerr nonlinear refraction of the solvent, we notice that the solute molecules contribute to nonlinear refraction of opposite signs: positive for C60 and negative for C70. Attributing nonlinear absorption and refraction of both solutes to cascading one-photon excitations, we illustrate that they satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation. Accordingly, we attest the signs and magnitudes of nonlinear refraction for both solutes at 532 nm by Kramers-Kronig transform of the corresponding nonlinear absorption spectra.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: August 4, 2010
Revised Manuscript: September 24, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 26, 2010
Published: October 11, 2010

Chen-Cheng Wu, Tai-Min Liu, Tai-Ying Wei, Li Xin, Yi-Ci Li, Li-Shu Lee, Che-Kai Chang, Jaw-Luen Tang, Sidney S. Yang, and Tai-Huei Wei, "Kramers–Kronig relation between nonlinear absorption and refraction of C60 and C70," Opt. Express 18, 22637-22650 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. B. Talapatra, N. Manickam, M. Samoc, M. E. Orczyk, S. P. Karna, and P. N. Prasad, “Nonlinear optical properties of the fullerene (C60) molecule: theoretical and experimental studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 96(13), 5206–5208 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. Walton, “Large infrared nonlinear optical response of C60,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(11), 1423–1425 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Couries, E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, and S. Leach, “Sub-picosecond studies of the third-order optical nonlinearities of C60- toluene solutions,” J. Phys. B 29(21), 5033–5041 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kost, L. Tutt, M. B. Klein, T. K. Dougherty, and W. E. Elias, “Optical limiting with C60 in polymethyl methacrylate,” Opt. Lett. 18(5), 334–336 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, and D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199(1-2), 144–148 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Li, L. Zhang, R. Wang, Y. Song, and Y. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(8), 1356–1360 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Zhang, D. Wang, P. Ye, Y. Li, P. Wu, and D. Zhu, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearities in C60-toluene and C70-toluene solutions,” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 973–975 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297(5-6), 491–498 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, and K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1763–1765 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 53–57 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Iliopoulos, S. Couris, U. Hartnagel, and A. Hirsch, “Nonlinear optical response of water soluble C70 dendrimers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 448(4-6), 243–247 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. W. D. Cheng, D. S. Wu, H. Zhang, D. G. Chen, and H. X. Wang, “Enhancements of third-order nonlinear optical response in excited state of the fullerenes C60 and C70,” Phys. Rev. B 66(11), 113401-113404 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Li, J. Si, M. Yang, R. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Excited-state nonlinear absorption in multi-energy-level molecular systems,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 569–575 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C.-F Li, X.-X. Deng, and Y.-X. Wang, “Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 17(8), 574–576 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, 1991), p. 48.
  18. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, (Academic Press, 1992), p. 59.
  19. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005), p. 4.
  20. D. C. Hutching, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers–Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992). [CrossRef]
  21. D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18(11), 858–860 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Lee, O. K. Song, J. C. Seo, and D. Kim, “Low-lying electronically excited states of C60 and C70 and measurement of their picosecond transient absorption in solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 196(3-4), 325–329 (1992). [CrossRef]
  23. T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991). [CrossRef]
  24. J. W. Arbogast, A. P. Darmanyan, C. S. Foote, Y. Rubin, F. N. Diederich, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, and R. L. Whetten, “Photophysical properties of C60,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 11–12 (1991). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Barroso, A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, and J. L. Saiz, “Wavelength dependence of the nonlinear absorption of C60-and C70-toluene solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(15), 2527–2532 (1998). [CrossRef]
  26. T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high‐lying excited states using Z-scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2266–2268 (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975), p.383.
  28. T. M. Liu, M. S. thesis, National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan 2002.
  29. K. Tanigaki, T. W. Ebbesen, and S. Kuroshima, “Picosecond and nanosecond studies of the excited state properties of C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 185(3-4), 189–192 (1991). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited