OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 2010
  • pp: 2287–2295

Solid-state lamps with optimized
color saturation ability

Artūras Žukauskas, Rimantas Vaicekauskas, and Michael Shur  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 2287-2295 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (182 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Spectral power distribution of trichromatic clusters of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was optimized for rendering the highest number of colors with a perceptually noticeable gain in chroma (color saturation) out of 1269 Munsell samples. The basic tradeoffs of the number of colors rendered with increased saturation with the number of colors rendered with high fidelity and with luminous efficacy of radiation were established. High-saturation RGB clusters composed of commercially available AlGaInP and InGaN LEDs were modeled for a standard set of correlated color temperatures and the stability of the color saturation ability of the clusters against the drift of peak wavelengths was investigated.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(330.1690) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color
(330.1715) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, rendering and metamerism

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

Original Manuscript: October 12, 2009
Revised Manuscript: December 26, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: December 26, 2009
Published: January 21, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Artūras Žukauskas, Rimantas Vaicekauskas, and Michael Shur, "Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability," Opt. Express 18, 2287-2295 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, “Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources,” Pub. CIE 13.3, 1995.
  2. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, “Colour rendering of white LED sources,” Pub. CIE 177, 2007.
  3. W. Davis, and Y. Ohno, “Toward and improved color rendering metrics,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G1–8 (2005).
  4. D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).
  5. W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(2), 191–194 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 4, 48–52 (1974).
  7. S. M. Aston and H. E. Belichambers,, “Illumination, color rendering, and visual clarity,” Lighting Res. Tech. 1(4), 259–261 (1969). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Hashimoto and Y. Nayatani, “Visual clarity and feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 19(3), 171–185 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Xu, “Color-rendering capacity of illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73(12), 1709–1713 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Nakano, H. Tahara, H. Suehara, J. Kohda, and T. Yano, “Application of multispectral camera to color rendering simulator,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 05 − 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1625–1628.
  11. K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based of feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, New York, 2002).
  15. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691–1703 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. J. Bouma, ““The colour reproduction of incandescent lamps and ‘Philiphan’ glass,” Philips’,” Technol. Rev. 3, 47–49 (1938).
  19. J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theroy. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the “color mondrian” experiments,” Vision Res. 16(5), 445–458 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. A. Worthey, “Color rendering: Asking the question,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. N. Narendran and L. Deng, “Color rendering properties of LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 61–67 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. Spectral Database, University of Joensuu Color Group., Available: http://spectral.joensuu.fi/ .
  24. D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(5), 247–274 (1942). [CrossRef]
  25. Specifications for the Chromaticity of Solid State Lighting Products, ANSI Standard C78.377–2008.
  26. G. Wyszecki, and W. S. Stiles, Color Science. Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, (Wiley, New York, 2000).
  27. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Žukauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Optimization of multichip white solid-state lighting source with four or more LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 148–155 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited