OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Bernard Kippelen
  • Vol. 19, Iss. S2 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: A166–A172

Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

Yiyu Ou, Dennis Dan Corell, Carsten Dam-Hansen, Paul Michael Petersen, and Haiyan Ou  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue S2, pp. A166-A172 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1336 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the monolithic white LED have been demonstrated. The CRI of the monolithic white LED could be improved from 92.68 to around 94 by applying a cylinder structure, and the CCT could be modified in a very large range with appropriate design of the cylinder structure.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(310.1210) Thin films : Antireflection coatings
(330.1715) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, rendering and metamerism
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Light-Emitting Diodes

Original Manuscript: January 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 10, 2011
Published: February 15, 2011

Yiyu Ou, Dennis D. Corell, Carsten Dam-Hansen, Paul M. Petersen, and Haiyan Ou, "Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 19, A166-A172 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
  2. X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Boden, and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3, 129–130 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. M.-K. Lee, C.-L. Ho, and P.-C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 252–254 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061112 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17, 20991–20997 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).
  19. P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).
  20. E. B. Grann, M. G. Moharam, and D. A. Pommet, “Optimal design for antireflective tapered two-dimensional subwavelength grating structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 333–339 (1995). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Lehr, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, C. Morhard, C. Pacholski, J. P. Spatz, and R. Brunner, “Simulating different manufactured antireflective sub-wavelength structures considering the influence of local topographic variations,” Opt. Express 18, 23878 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1: Fig. 2: Fig. 3:
Fig. 4:

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited