OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 11 — May. 23, 2011
  • pp: 10834–10842

Maskless lithography using silicon oxide etch-stop layer induced by megahertz repetition femtosecond laser pulses

Amirkianoosh Kiani, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan, Bo Tan, and Venkat Venkataramanan  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 11, pp. 10834-10842 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1225 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this study we report a new method for maskless lithography fabrication process by a combination of direct silicon oxide etch-stop layer patterning and wet alkaline etching. A thin layer of etch-stop silicon oxide of predetermined pattern was first generated by irradiation with high repetition (MHz) ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pulses in air and at atmospheric pressure. The induced thin layer of silicon oxide is used as an etch stop during etching process in alkaline etchants such as KOH. Our proposed method has the potential to enable low-cost, flexible, high quality patterning for a wide variety of application in the field of micro- and nanotechnology, this technique can be leading to a promising solution for maskless lithography technique. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), optical microscopy, Micro-Raman, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were used to analyze the silicon oxide layer induced by laser pulses.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(350.3850) Other areas of optics : Materials processing
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

Original Manuscript: April 5, 2011
Revised Manuscript: April 26, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: April 29, 2011
Published: May 18, 2011

Amirkianoosh Kiani, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan, Bo Tan, and Venkat Venkataramanan, "Maskless lithography using silicon oxide etch-stop layer induced by megahertz repetition femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 19, 10834-10842 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. J. Plummer, M. D. Deal, and P. B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Printice-Hall, 2000)
  2. A. Kiani, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Micro/nano scale amorphization of silicon by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16518–16526 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. L. Green, E. P. Gusev, R. Degraeve, and E. L. Garfunkel, “Ultrathin (<4 nm) SiO2 and Si–O–N gate dielectric layers for silicon microelectronics: Understanding the processing, structure, and physical and electrical limits,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(5), 2057–2121 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Aygun, E. Atanassova, A. Alacakir, L. Ozyuzer, and R. Turan, “Oxidation of Si surface by a pulsed Nd: YAG laser,” J. Phys. D. 37(11), 1569–1575 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, Y. Li, M. J. Cima, and R. Langer, “A BioMEMS review: MEMS technology for physiologically integrated devices,” Proc. IEEE 92(1), 6–21 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Saini, R. Gates, M. C. Asplund, S. Blair, S. Attavar, and M. R. Linford, “Directing polyallylamine adsorption on microlens array patterned silicon for microarray fabrication,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1789–1796 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. S. Lee, S. H. Park, H. S. Yang, K. H. Chung, T. H. Yoon, S. J. Kim, K. Kim, and Y. T. Kim, “Bulk-micromachined submicroliter-volume PCR chip with very rapid thermal response and low power consumption,” Lab Chip 4(4), 401–407 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Kiani, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Direct patterning of silicon oxide on Si-substrate induced by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1872–1878 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Ell, T. A. Crosby, J. J. Peterson, K. R. Carter, and J. J. Watkins, “Formation of SiO2 air-gap patterns through scCO2 infusion of NIL patterned PHEMA,” Chem. Mater. 22(4), 1445–1451 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Della Giustina, M. Guglielmi, G. Brusatin, M. Prasciolu, and F. Romanato, “Electron beam writing of epoxy based sol–gel materials,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 212–216 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Floresarias, A. Castelo, C. Gomezreino, and G. Delafuente, “Phase diffractive optical gratings on glass substrates by laser ablation,” Opt. Commun. 282(6), 1175–1178 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Aissou, M. Kogelschatz, T. Baron, and P. Gentile, “Self-assembled block polymer templates as high resolution lithographic masks,” Surf. Sci. 601(13), 2611–2614 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. Pai, R. Humayun, M. T. Schulberg, A. Sengupta, J. N. Sun, and J. J. Watkins, “Mesoporous silicates prepared using preorganized templates in supercritical fluids,” Science 303(5657), 507–510 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Yin, S. Horiuchi, and T. Masuoka, “Lateral assembly of metal nanoparticles directed by nanodomain control in block copolymer thin films,” Chem. Mater. 17(3), 463–469 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. E. J. Carvalho, M. A. R. Alves, E. S. Braga, and L. Cescato, “SiO2 single layer for reduction of the standing wave effects in the interference lithography of deep photoresist structures on Si,” Microelectron. J. 37(11), 1265–1270 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Tan, A. Dalili, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser nano-machining of thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 537–545 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. C. F. Guo, S. Cao, P. Jiang, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Fan, Y. Wang, W. Xu, Z. Zhao, and Q. Liu, “Grayscale photomask fabricated by laser direct writing in metallic nano-films,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19981–19987 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Venkatakrishnan, B. K. A. Ngoi, P. Stanley, L. E. N. Lim, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Laser writing techniques for photomask fabrication using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(4), 493–496 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Yasuda, S. Arai, J. Kai, Y. Ooae, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, and T. Kiuchi, “Multielectron beam blanking aperture array system SYNAPSE-2000,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 3813–3820 (1996). [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Hastings, M. H. Lim, J. G. Goodberlet, and H. I. Smith, “Optical waveguides with apodized sidewall gratings via spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(6), 2753–2757 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. J. T. Hastings, F. Zhang, and H. I. Smith, “Nanometer-level stitching in raster-scanning electron-beam lithography using spatial-phase locking,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2650–2656 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Schmidt, L. Bischoff, and J. Teichert, “Writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching for fabrication of 3D structures in silicon,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 61(1-3), 369–373 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. G. M. Atkinson, F. P. Stratton, R. L. Kubena, and J. C. Wolfe, “30 nm resolution zero proximity lithography on high-Z substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(6), 3104–3108 (1992). [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Spallas, C. S. Silver, and L. P. Muray, “Arrayed miniature electron beam columns for mask making,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(6), 2892–2896 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. M. E. Walsh and H. I. Smith, “Method for reducing hyperbolic phase in interference lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2347–2352 (2001). [CrossRef]
  26. P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  27. T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, “Optical maskless lithography for economic design prototyping and small-volume production,” Proc. SPIE 5377, 777–787 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. I. W. Moran, A. L. Briseno, S. Loser, and K. R. Carter, “Device fabrication by easy soft imprint nano-lithography,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4595–4601 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. S. Krämer, R. R. Fuierer, and C. B. Gorman, “Scanning probe lithography using self-assembled monolayers,” Chem. Rev. 103(11), 4367–4418 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. H. Wei and D. S. Ginger, “A direct-write single-step positive etch resist for dip-pen nanolithography,” Small 3(12), 2034–2037 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography andanisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999). [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, G. Luo, X. Zhou, G. Y. Xie, T. Zhu, and Z. F. Liu, “Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching,” Nanotechnology 16(4), 422–428 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. D. A. Weinberger, S. Hong, C. A. Mirkin, B. W. Wessels, and T. B. Higgins, ““Combinatorial generation and analysis of nanometer- and micrometer-scale silicon features via “dip-pen” nanolithography and wet chemical etching,” Adv. Mater. 12(21), 1600–1603 (2000). [CrossRef]
  34. N. Kawasegi, N. Morita, S. Yamada, N. Takano, T. Oyama, and K. Ashida, “Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography,” Nanotechnology 16(8), 1411–1414 (2005). [CrossRef]
  35. R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Gil, and H. I. Smith, “Maskless lithography,” Mater. Today 8(2), 26–33 (2005). [CrossRef]
  36. N. Rouhi, B. Esfandyarpour, S. Mohajerzadeh, P. Hashemi, B. Hekmat-Shoar, and M. D. Robertson, “Low temperature high quality growth of silicon-dioxide using oxygenation of hydrogenation-assisted nano-stractured silicon thin film,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 989, 95–100 (2007). [CrossRef]
  37. B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, “General relationship for thermal oxidation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(12), 3770–3778 (1965). [CrossRef]
  38. J. Blanc, “Revised model for oxidation of Si by oxygen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(5), 424–426 (1978). [CrossRef]
  39. V. K. Samalam, “Theoretical-model for the oxidation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(7), 736–737 (1985). [CrossRef]
  40. A. Fargeix and G. Ghibaudo, “Role of stress on the parabolic kinetic constant for dry silicon oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 56(2), 589–591 (1984). [CrossRef]
  41. H. Z. Massoud, J. D. Plummer, and E. A. Irene, “Thermal oxidation of silicon in dry oxygen-growth-rate enhancement in the thin regime 0.2. physical-mechanism,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132(11), 2693–2700 (1985). [CrossRef]
  42. E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast ablation with high-pulse-rate lasers. Part I: Theoretical considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 4213–4222 (1999). [CrossRef]
  43. I. Zergioti and M. Stuke, “Short pulse UV laser ablation of solid and liquid gallium,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(4), 391–395 (1998). [CrossRef]
  44. S. Panchatsharam, B. Tan, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Femtosecond laser-induced shockwave formation on ablated silicon surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  45. J. Bonse, K. W. Brezinka, and A. J. Meixner, “Modifying single-crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser pulses: an analysis by micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 221(1–4), 215–230 (2004). [CrossRef]
  46. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. L. Guo, “Direct observation of enhanced residual thermal energy coupling to solids in femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011916 (2005). [CrossRef]
  47. H. R. Shanks, P. D. Maycock, P. H. Sidles, and G. C. Danielson, “Thermal conductivity of silicon from 300 to 1400 degrees K,” Phys. Rev. 130(5), 1743–1748 (1963). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited