OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 13 — Jun. 20, 2011
  • pp: 12190–12196

Detection of malarial byproduct hemozoin utilizing its unique scattering properties

Benjamin K. Wilson, Matthew R. Behrend, Matthew P. Horning, and Michael C. Hegg  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 13, pp. 12190-12196 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1063 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The scattering characteristics of the malaria byproduct hemozoin, including its scattering distribution and depolarization, are modeled using Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) and compared to those of healthy red blood cells. Scattering (or dark-field) spectroscopy and imaging are used to identify hemozoin in fresh rodent blood samples. A new detection method is proposed and demonstrated using dark-field in conjunction with cross-polarization imaging and spectroscopy. SNRs greater than 50:1 are achieved for hemozoin in fresh blood without the addition of stains or reagents. The potential of such a detection system is discussed.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(290.5820) Scattering : Scattering measurements

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: May 19, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 1, 2011
Published: June 8, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Benjamin K. Wilson, Matthew R. Behrend, Matthew P. Horning, and Michael C. Hegg, "Detection of malarial byproduct hemozoin utilizing its unique scattering properties," Opt. Express 19, 12190-12196 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).
  2. D. Payne, “Use and limitations of light microscopy for diagnosing malaria at the primary health care level,” Bull. World Health Organ. 66(5), 621–626 (1988). [PubMed]
  3. World Health Organization, “Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance,” (Geneva, 2009).
  4. A. Wolter, “Uber die Schnelldiagnose der Malaria mit Hilfe des Dunkelfeldes,” Dermat. Zeitschrift 63(1-2), 69–72 (1932). [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Jamjoom, “Dark-field microscopy for detection of malaria in unstained blood films,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 17(5), 717–721 (1983). [PubMed]
  6. B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Lawrence and J. A. Olson, “Birefringent hemozoin identifies malaria,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86(3), 360–363 (1986). [PubMed]
  8. C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. P. Josephine and V. Nissapatorn, “Malaria: the value of the automated depolarization analysis,” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36(Suppl 4), 68–72 (2005).
  10. B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4), 1491–1499 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. M. Serebrennikova, J. Patel, and L. H. Garcia-Rubio, “Interpretation of the ultraviolet-visible spectra of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 180–188 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 2

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited