OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 17 — Aug. 15, 2011
  • pp: 16466–16479

Reflective cavity couplers based on resonant waveguide gratings

Stefanie Kroker, Thomas Käsebier, Frank Brückner, Frank Fuchs, Ernst-Bernhard Kley, and Andreas Tünnermann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 17, pp. 16466-16479 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.016466


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2440 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report on a novel concept for reflective diffractive cavity couplers based on resonant waveguide gratings instead of multilayer coatings. The diffracting or rather beam splitting properties are induced to the subwavelength structures by a periodic parameter modulation of the ridges. Since such a perturbation of the highly reflective system also enhances transmission stacks of two and three reflectors are considered to retrieve transmittivities as low as possible. Our calculations show that transmissions of less than 10−4 are possible for different configurations based on silicon and silica. The results of first technological tests for the realization of stacked T-shape structures are presented. With a total effective layer thickness not exceeding 1.1 μm the discussed approaches are expected to remarkably reduce the urgent problem of coating thermal noise of conventional components for high-precision metrology.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(230.1360) Optical devices : Beam splitters
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: June 22, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 15, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 15, 2011
Published: August 11, 2011

Citation
Stefanie Kroker, Thomas Käsebier, Frank Brückner, Frank Fuchs, Ernst-Bernhard Kley, and Andreas Tünnermann, "Reflective cavity couplers based on resonant waveguide gratings," Opt. Express 19, 16466-16479 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-17-16466


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Fritschel, D. Shoemaker, and R. Weiss, “Demonstration of light recycling in a Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot cavities,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1412–1418 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, and K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993). [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. P. Drever, “Concepts for extending the ultimate sensitivity of interferometric gravitational gravitational-wave detectors using non-transmissive optics with diffractive or holographic coupling,” in Proceedings of the seventh Marcel Grossman meeting on general relativity , M. Keiser and R. T. Jantzen (eds.), World ScientificSingapore (1995).
  4. K.-X. Sun and R. L. Byer, “All-reflective Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry-Perot interferometers based on grating beams splitters,” Opt. Lett. 23, 567–569 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, T. Clausnitzer, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Optical characterization of ultrahigh diffraction efficiency gratings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5795–5799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, P. Beyersdorf, K. Danzmann, R. Schnabel, T. Clausnitzer, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Low-loss grating for coupling to a high-finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2342–2344 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Britzger, D. Friedrich, S. Kroker, F. Brückner, O. Burmeister, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Diffractively coupled Fabry-Perot resonator with power-recycling,” Opt. Express 19, 14964–14975 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, R. Schilling, and W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 194, 124–132 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Thermo-refractive noise in gravitational-wave antennae,” Phys. Lett. A 271, 303–307 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Levin, “Internal thermal noise for LIGO test masses: a direct approach,” Phys. Rev. D 57, 659–663 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Mashev and E. Popov, “Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings,” Opt. Commun. 55, 377–380 (1985). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, 7297–7303 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Peng, D. A. Fattal, A. Faraon, M. Fiorentino, J. Li, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Reflective silicon binary diffraction grating for visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1515–1517 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, C. Schwarz, D. Heinert, M. Hudl, R. Neubert, M. Thürk, S. Nietzsche, W. Vodel, P. Seidel, and A. Tünnermann, “High mechanical Q-factor measurements on silicon bulk samples,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 122, 1–9 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. X. Liu, C. L. Spiel, R. D. Merithew, R. O. Pohl, B. P. Nelson, Q. Wang, and R. S. Crandall, “Internal friction of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon at low temperatures,” Mat. Sci. Eng. A 442, 307–313 (2006) [CrossRef]
  17. F. Brückner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. Tünnermann, and R. Schnabel, “Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 33, 264–266 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Brückner, D. Friedrich, T. Clausnitzer, M. Britzger, O. Burmeister, K. Danzmann, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and Roman Schnabel, “Realization of a monolithic high-reflectivity cavity mirror from a single silicon crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163903 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. K. Jacob, S. C. Dunn, and M. G. Moharam, “Normally incident resonant grating reflection filters for efficient narrow-band spectral filtering of finite beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2109–21120 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Brückner, S. Kroker, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Widely tunable monolithic narrowband grating filter for near-infrared radiation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 436–438 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Kroker, F. Brückner, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Enhanced angular tolerance of resonant waveguide grating reflectors,” Opt. Lett. 36, 537–539 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating-waveguide structures for visible and near-infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 2985–2993 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. I. C. Botten, M. S. Craig, R. C. McPhredan, J. L. Adams, and J. R. Andrewartha, “The dielectric lamellar diffraction grating,” Opt. Act. 122, 413–428 (1981). [CrossRef]
  24. V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 18, 16973–16988 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled wave approach for planar diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981). [CrossRef]
  26. http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/NLopt .
  27. R. Nawrodt, C. Schwarz, S. Kroker, I. W. Martin, F. Brückner, L. Cunningham, V. Große, A. Grib, D. Heinert, J. Hough, T. Käsebier, E.-B. Kley, R. Neubert, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. Seidel, M. Thürk, and A. Tünnermann, “Investigation of mechanical losses of thin silicon flexures at low temperatures,” arXiv:1003.2893v1.
  28. F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 18, 12606–12614 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4, 466–470 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited