OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 22358–22363

Three-Dimensional Modulation Formats with Constant Power for Optical Communications

Zhenxing Chen and Seog Geun Kang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 22358-22363 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (852 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper, a new method of constructing three-dimensional modulation formats with constant power is introduced. Constellations designed by the method have slightly larger minimum Euclidean distances (MEDs) than the conventional ones. No repetitive algorithm to maximize MED is used so that the new method has little computational complexity. Since signal points in the new formats are distributed regularly and symmetrically, an error control coding with systematic set-partition is applicable. We also present theoretical symbol error probability (SEP) of the new constellations in an additive white Gaussian noise environment, and demonstrate that the theoretical results are accurate. As the new modulation formats have almost the same or slightly lower SEPs than the conventional ones, they are appropriate for implementing a highly reliable optical communication system.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Zhenxing Chen and Seog Geun Kang, "Three-Dimensional Modulation Formats with Constant Power for Optical Communications," Opt. Express 19, 22358-22363 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10814–10819 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. G. Batshon, I. B. Djordjevic, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Multidimensional LDPC-coded modulation for beyond 400 Gb/s per wavelength transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(16), 1139–1141 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. J.-E. Porath and T. Aulin, “Design of multidimensional signal constellations,” IEE Proc.-Commun. 150(5), 317–323 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Benedetto and E. Poggiolini, “Theory of polarization shift keying modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40(4), 708–721 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Betti, F. Curti, G. D. Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(7), 1127–1136 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Betti, G. D. Marchis, and E. Iannone, “Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1985–1997 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Benedetto, G. Olmo, and E. Poggiolini, “Trellis coded polarization shift keying modulation for digital optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(2/3/4), 1591–1602 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Blaikie, D. P. Taylor, and P. T. Gough, “Multilevel differential polarization shift keying,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(1), 95–102 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. N. J. A. Sloane, R. H. Hardin, T. D. S. Duff, and J. H. Conway, “Minimal-energy clusters of hard spheres,” discrete and Computational Geometry.  14(3), 237–259 (1995).
  10. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 2008).
  11. Z. Chen, E. C. Choi, and S. G. Kang, “Closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability of 3-D OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 14(2), 112–114 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited