OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 22388–22401

Observation of query pulse length dependent Ramsey interference in rubidium vapor using pulsed Raman excitation

G. S. Pati, F. K. Fatemi, and M.S. Shahriar  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 22388-22401 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1867 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report observation of query pulse length dependent Ramsey interference (QPLD-RI), using pulsed Raman excitation in rubidium vapor. This is observed when a long, attenuated query pulse is used during pulsed Raman excitation. We explain the physical mechanism behind the QPLD-RI using a Bloch vector model. We also use numerical solutions to time-dependent density matrix equations to simulate this interference effect, showing qualitative agreement with experimental results. Presence of such interference could create a potential source of error in a vapor cell Raman clock constructed using frequency-domain Ramsey interference (FDRI).

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: August 22, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 4, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 5, 2011
Published: October 24, 2011

G. S. Pati, F. K. Fatemi, and M.S. Shahriar, "Observation of query pulse length dependent Ramsey interference in rubidium vapor using pulsed Raman excitation," Opt. Express 19, 22388-22401 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. N. F. Ramsey, “A molecular beam resonance method with separated oscillating field,” Phys. Rev. 78(6), 695–699 (1950). [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Salour and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Observation of Ramsey’s interference fringes in the profile of Doppler-free two-photon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(14), 757–760 (1977). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Theobald, V. Giordano, N. Dimatcq, and P. Cerez, “Observation of narrow Ramsey-type resonances in a caesium beam due to Zeeman coherences,” J. Phys. B 24(13), 2957–2966 (1991). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Schuh, S. I. Kanorsky, A. Weis, and T. W. Hänsch, “Observation of Ramsey fringes in nonlinear Faraday rotation,” Opt. Commun. 100(5-6), 451–455 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. A. S. Zibrov and A. S. Matsko, “Optical Ramsey fringes induced by Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013814 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. A. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, and A. B. Matsko, “Observation of Ramsey fringes in an atomic cell with buffer gas,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1311–1313 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Essen and J. V. L. Parry, “An atomic standard of frequency and time interval: a caesium resonator,” Nature 176(4476), 280–282 (1955). [CrossRef]
  8. A. G. Mungall, H. Daams, and J. S. Boulanger, “Design, construction, and performance of the NRC CsVI primary cesium clocks,” Metrolog. 17(4), 123–145 (1981). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Audoin, “Caesium beam frequency standards: classical and optically pumped,” Metrolog. 29(2), 113–134 (1992). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(13), 867–870 (1982). [CrossRef]
  11. P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, and C. C. Leiby., “Stabilization of a microwave oscillator using a resonance Raman transition in a sodium beam,” Opt. Lett. 8(8), 440–442 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. R. Hemmer, M. S. Shahriar, H. Lamela-Rivera, S. P. Smith, B. E. Bernacki, and S. Ezekiel, “Semiconductor laser excitation of Ramsey fringes using a Raman transition in a cesium atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(8), 1326–1329 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. S. Pati, K. Salit, R. Tripathi, and M. S. Shahriar, “Demonstration of Raman–Ramsey fringes using time delayed optical pulses in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4676–4680 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. G. S. Pati, F. K. Fatemi, M. Bashkansky, and S. Shahriar, “Prospect for development of a pulsed CPT Raman–Ramsey clock using atomic vapor,” Proc. SPIE 7612, 76120D, 76120D-25 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Yan, Y. Ma, and Y. Wang, “Formation of Ramsey fringes based on pulsed coherent light storage,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063820 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Merimaa, T. Lindvall, I. Tittonen, and E. Ikonen, “All-optical atomic clock based on coherent population trapping in Rb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(2), 273–279 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. G. S. Pati, F. K. Fatemi, M. Bashkansky, and S. Shahriar, “Optical Ramsey interference and its performance in D1 line excitation in rubidium vapor for implementation of a vapor cell clock,” Proc. SPIE 7949, 794910D (2010).
  20. V. Shah, S. Kanppe, P. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, “Subpicotesla atomic magnetometry with a microfabricated vapour cell,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 649–652 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257–354.
  22. M. S. Shahriar, P. R. Hemmer, D. P. Katz, A. Lee, and M. G. Prentiss, “Dark-state-based three-element vector model for the stimulated Raman interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55(3), 2272–2282 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. P. R. Hemmer, M. S. Shahriar, V. D. Natoli, and S. Ezekiel, “AC Stark shifts in a two-zone Raman interaction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(8), 1519–1528 (1989). [CrossRef]
  24. P. R. Hemmer, G. P. Ontai, and S. Ezekiel, “Precision studies of stimulated-resonance Raman interactions in an atomic beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(2), 219–230 (1986). [CrossRef]
  25. S. Brandt, A. Nagel, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, “Buffer-gas-induced line width reduction of coherent dark resonances to below 50 Hz,” Phys. Rev. A 56(2), R1063–R1066 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. S. J. Park, H. Cho, T. Y. Kwon, and H. S. Lee, “Transient coherence oscillation induced by a detuned Raman field in a rubidium Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 023806 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited