OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 24 — Nov. 21, 2011
  • pp: 24557–24562

Graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for photonic integrated circuits

Jin Tae Kim and Sung-Yool Choi  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 24, pp. 24557-24562 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (880 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We perform experimental investigations on the characteristics of graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for development of photonic integrated circuits. By embedding chemical vapor deposited graphene strip in a photoactive UV curable perfluorinated acrylate polymer with a low refractive index and material loss, the two-dimensional metal-like plasmonic waveguide demonstrated as a light signal guiding medium for high-speed optical data transmission. The fabricated graphene-based plasmonic waveguide supports the transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization modes with the averaged extinction ratio of 19 dB at a wavelength of 1.31 µm. The 2.5 Gbps optical signals were successfully transmitted via 6 mm-long graphene plasmonic waveguides. The proposed graphene-based plasmonic waveguides can be exploited further for development of next-generation photonic integrated circuit and devices.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: October 6, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 6, 2011
Published: November 15, 2011

Jin Tae Kim and Sung-Yool Choi, "Graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for photonic integrated circuits," Opt. Express 19, 24557-24562 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(3), 484–588 (2009) (and references therein). [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and M.-H. Lee, “Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13133–13138 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallelplate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. H. Whang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205418 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. N. J. M. Horing, “Coupling of graphene and surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193401 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. E. G. Mishchenko, A. V. Shytov, and P. G. Silvestrov, “Guided plasmons in graphene p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 156806 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Yu, J. Lian, S. Siriponglert, H. Li, Y. P. Chen, and S.-S. Pei, “Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, and M. H. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Kim, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.-S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and J. J. Ju, “Gold stripe optical waveguides fabricated by a novel double-layered liftoff process,” ETRI J. 31(6), 778–783 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, M.- Kim, J.-M. Lee, J.-S. Choe, M.-H. Lee, and S.-Y. Shin, “Silver stripe optical waveguide for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(13), 902–904 (2009).
  22. R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Fang, and X. Qiu, “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5(1), 408–412 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. T. Kim, J. J. Ju, S. Park, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide for low-loss lightwave guiding,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2808–2813 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited