OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 25 — Dec. 5, 2011
  • pp: 24897–24904

Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current

Christopher T. DeRose, Douglas C. Trotter, William A. Zortman, Andrew L. Starbuck, Moz Fisher, Michael R. Watts, and Paul S. Davids  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 25, pp. 24897-24904 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1100 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a compact 1.3 × 4 μm2 Germanium waveguide photodiode, integrated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process flow. This photodiode has a best-in-class 3 dB cutoff frequency of 45 GHz, responsivity of 0.8 A/W and dark current of 3 nA. The low intrinsic capacitance of this device may enable the elimination of transimpedance amplifiers in future optical data communication receivers, creating ultra low power consumption optical communications.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.6040) Detectors : Silicon
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: September 19, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 3, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 8, 2011
Published: November 22, 2011

Christopher T. DeRose, Douglas C. Trotter, William A. Zortman, Andrew L. Starbuck, Moz Fisher, Michael R. Watts, and Paul S. Davids, "Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current," Opt. Express 19, 24897-24904 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. X. Kartner, and J. Michel, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors” Opt. Express15, 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Yin, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Advances in Optical Technologies196572 (5 pp.) (2008).
  4. M. Oehme, J. WWerner, M. Kaschel, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Germanium waveguide photodetectors integrated on silicon with MBE,” Thin Solid Films 517, 137–139 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n. Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 1, 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18, 204–211 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 112–114 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photonics 4, 527–534 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19, 10967–10972 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1167–1185 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators and Switches,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp.4–6. [CrossRef]
  13. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of LEOS (IEEE, 2008) pp. 457–458.
  14. M.R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, and W. A. Zortman, “Limits to Silicon Modulator Bandwidth and Power Consumption,” Proc. SPIE 7221, 72210M-1–72210M-8 (2009).
  15. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2009) paper CPDB10.
  16. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,”IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quatnum Electron. 16, 159–164 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Power High-Speed Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ4.
  18. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D.L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon Microring Modulator with Integrated Heater and Temperature Sensor for Thermal Control,” in 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2010) paper CThJ3.
  19. W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, A. L. Lentine, G. Robertson, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic Integration of Silicon Electronics and Photonics,” in 2011 IEEE Winter Topicals (WTM), (IEEE, 2011) pp. 139–140. [CrossRef]
  20. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, R. W. Young, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, W. A. Zortman, and R. D. Kekatpure, “Low power and broadband 2x2 silicon thermo-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Confererence (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper OThM3.
  21. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes With 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510–1512 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n Photodetectors for Standard Receiver Modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442–2444 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909–2911 (1999). [CrossRef]
  26. G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-Performance p-i-n Ge on Si Photodetectors for the Near Infrared: From Model to Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 1092–1096 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, F. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1813–1815 (2007). [CrossRef]
  28. L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 69–79 (2009). [CrossRef]
  29. M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift Velocity and Diffusivity of Hot Carriers in Germanium: Model Calculations,” Solid State Electron. 30, 1351–1354 (1987). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited