OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 9 — Apr. 25, 2011
  • pp: 8533–8538

Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation

David S. Millar and Seb J. Savory  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 9, pp. 8533-8538 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (803 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Coherent detection in combination with digital signal processing has recently enabled significant progress in the capacity of optical communications systems. This improvement has enabled detection of optimum constellations for optical signals in four dimensions. In this paper, we propose and investigate an algorithm for the blind adaptive equalization of one such modulation format: polarization-switched quaternary phase shift keying (PS-QPSK). The proposed algorithm, which includes both blind initialization and adaptation of the equalizer, is found to be insensitive to the input polarization state and demonstrates highly robust convergence in the presence of PDL, DGD and polarization rotation.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: February 24, 2011
Revised Manuscript: April 4, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: April 12, 2011
Published: April 18, 2011

David S. Millar and Seb J. Savory, "Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation," Opt. Express 19, 8533-8538 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguci, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishii, “69.1-Tb/s (432 x 171-Gb/s) C – and Extended L-Band Transmission over 240km Using PDM-16-QAM Modulation and Digital Coherent Detection,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, CA, Mar. 21–25, 2009, PDPB7.
  2. A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and T. Li, “High-Capacity Optical Transmission Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9), 1032–1045 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 804–817 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Ip and J. Kahn, “Compensation of Dispersion and Nonlinear Impairments Using Digital Backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Mitigation of Fiber Nonlinearity using a Digital Coherent Receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1217–1226 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Zhu, X. Li, E. Mateo, and G. Li, “Complementary FIR Filter Pair for Distributed Impairment Compensation of WDM Fiber Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 292–294 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Ip and J. Kahn, “Digital Equalization of Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3416–3425 (2007).
  8. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally Efficient Long-Haul Optical Networking using 112-Gb/s Polarization-Multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 547–556 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?” Opt. Express 17(13), 10814–10819 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-Efficient Modulation Formats in Coherent Transmission Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5115–5126 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Bülow, “Polarization QAM Modulation (POL-QAM) for Coherent Detection Schemes,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009, San Diego, CA, Mar. 22–26, 2009, OWG2.
  12. 40G Submarine Applications, Ciena Application Note, Ciena Corp, Available: www.ciena.com
  13. Alcatel-Lucent1626Light Manager, Data Sheet release 6.1, Alcatel-Lucent, Available: www.alcatel-lucent.com
  14. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, and F. Forghieri, “Performance evaluation of coherent WDM PS-QPSK (HEXA) accounting for non-linear fiber propagation effects,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11360–11371 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Serena, A. Vannucci, and A. Bononi, “The Performance of Polarization Switched-QPSK (PS-QPSK) in Dispersion Managed WDM Transmissions,” Proc. ECOC 2010, Th.10.E.2, Sept. 2010.
  16. S. J. Savory, “Digital Coherent Optical Receivers: Algorithms and Subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1164–1179 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory, Prentice Hall, 2001.
  18. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidsion, “Margin Measurement in Optical Amplifier Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(3), 304–306 (1993). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “DSP for Coherent Single-Carrier Receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3614–3622 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Vgenis, C. S. Petrou, C. B. Papadias, I. Roudas, and L. Raptis, “Nonsingular Constant Modulus Equalizer for PDM-QPSK Coherent Optical Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 45–47 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited