OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 9 — Apr. 25, 2011
  • pp: 8546–8556

InGaAs–InP avalanche photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination

Yanli Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Long Qin, Qi Tang, Rui Hua Wu, Jianjun Liu, Youping Zhang, Hong Zhang, Xiuhua Yuan, and Wen Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 9, pp. 8546-8556 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.008546


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1376 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAGCM APDs) are widely accepted in photon starved optical communication systems due to the presence of large photocurrent gain. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of dark currents of planar-type SAGCM InGaAs–InP APDs with different thicknesses of multiplication layer. The effect of the diffusion process, the generation-recombination process, the tunneling process and the multiplication process on the total leakage current is discussed. A new empirical formula has been established to predict the optimal multiplication layer thickness of SAGCM APDs with dark current limited by generation-recombination at multiplication gain of 8.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: February 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 28, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: April 10, 2011
Published: April 18, 2011

Citation
Yanli Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Long Qin, Qi Tang, Rui Hua Wu, Jianjun Liu, Youping Zhang, Hong Zhang, Xiuhua Yuan, and Wen Liu, "InGaAs–InP avalanche photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination," Opt. Express 19, 8546-8556 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8546


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Campbell, “Recent Advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 109–121 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988). [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980). [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Forrest, “Performance of InxGa1-xAsyP1-y photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 217–226 (1981). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhao and S. He, “Multiplication characteristics of InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a thicker charge layer,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 476–480 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Takanashi, M. Kawashima, and Y. Horikoshi, “Required donor concentration of epitaxial layers for efficient InGaAsP avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(4), 693–701 (1980). [CrossRef]
  16. S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Kang, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, Y.-H. Kuo, J. Bowers, A. Beling, H.-D. Liu, D. C. McIntosh, J. Campbell, and A. Pauchard, “Epitaxially-grown Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes for 1.3 microm light detection,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9365–9371 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. K. J. Li, H. D. Liu, Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “SiC avalanche photodiode array with microlenses,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11713–11719 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited