OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 19 — Sep. 10, 2012
  • pp: 21385–21399

Fast three-dimensional imaging of gold nanoparticles in living cells with photothermal optical lock-in Optical Coherence Microscopy

Christophe Pache, Noelia L. Bocchio, Arno Bouwens, Martin Villiger, Corinne Berclaz, Joan Goulley, Matthew I. Gibson, Christian Santschi, and Theo Lasser  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 19, pp. 21385-21399 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1979 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We introduce photothermal optical lock-in Optical Coherence Microscopy (poli-OCM), a volumetric imaging technique, which combines the depth sectioning of OCM with the high sensitivity of photothermal microscopy while maintaining the fast acquisition speed inherent to OCM. We report on the detection of single 40 nm gold particles with a 0.5 μm lateral and 2 μm axial resolution over a 50 μm depth of field and the three-dimensional localization of gold colloids within living cells. In combination with intrinsic sample contrast measured with dark-field OCM, poli-OCM offers a versatile platform for functional cell imaging.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.1530) Medical optics and biotechnology : Cell analysis
(170.6900) Medical optics and biotechnology : Three-dimensional microscopy
(180.1655) Microscopy : Coherence tomography
(110.3175) Imaging systems : Interferometric imaging
(110.6955) Imaging systems : Tomographic imaging

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 28, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 28, 2012
Published: September 4, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Christophe Pache, Noelia L. Bocchio, Arno Bouwens, Martin Villiger, Corinne Berclaz, Joan Goulley, Matthew I. Gibson, Christian Santschi, and Theo Lasser, "Fast three-dimensional imaging of gold nanoparticles in living cells with photothermal optical lock-in Optical Coherence Microscopy," Opt. Express 20, 21385-21399 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Weissleder, U. Mahmood, “Molecular imaging,” Radiology 219, 316–333 (2001). [PubMed]
  2. J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, P. Tinnefeld, “A reducing and oxidizing system minimizes photobleaching and blinking of fluorescent dyes,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 5465–5469 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Murphy, A. M. Gole, J. W. Stone, P. N. Sisco, A. M. Alkilany, E. C. Goldsmith, S. C. Baxter, “Gold nanoparticles in biology: beyond toxicity to cellular imaging,” Accounts Chem. Res. 41, 1721–1730 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 95–98 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. U. Resch-Genger, M. Grabolle, S. Cavaliere-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, T. Nann, “Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels,” Nat. Methods 5, 763–775 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297, 1160–1163 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. Blab, B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2012).
  9. J. Kim, J. Oh, H. W. Kang, M. D. Feldman, T. E. Milner, “Photothermal response of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” Laser Surg. Med. 40, 415–421 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Lasne, G. A. Blab, F. De Giorgi, F. Ichas, B. Lounis, L. Cognet, “Label-free optical imaging of mitochondria in live cells,” Opt. Express 15, 14184–14193 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Lu, W. Min, S. Chong, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Label-free imaging of heme proteins with two-photon excited photothermal lens microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113701 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Gaiduk, P. V. Ruijgrok, M. Yorulmaz, M. Orrit, “Detection limits in photothermal microscopy,” Chem. Sci. 1, 343–350 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239–303 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Izatt, M. Hee, G. Owen, E. Swanson, J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 590–592 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. K. Ellerbee, T. L. Creazzo, J. A. Izatt, “Investigating nanoscale cellular dynamics with cross-sectional spectral domain phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 8115–8124 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Joo, C. L. Evans, T. Stepinac, T. Hasan, J. F. de Boer, “Diffusive and directional intracellular dynamics measured by field-based dynamic light scattering,” Opt. Express 18, 2858–2871 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Villiger, C. Pache, T. Lasser, “Dark-field optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3489–3491 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J.-A. Conchello, J. W. Lichtman, “Optical sectioning microscopy,” Nat. Meth. 2, 920–931 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. A. S. Paranjape, R. Kuranov, S. Baranov, L. L. Ma, J. W. Villard, T. Wang, K. V. Sokolov, M. D. Feldman, K. P. Johnston, T. E. Milner, “Depth resolved photothermal OCT detection of macrophages in tissue using nanorose,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 2–16 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal Optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8, 3461–3467 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, D. C. Adler, H.-C. Lee, D. W. Cohen, A. Mondelblatt, Y. Wang, J. L. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography in ex vivo human breast tissues using gold nanoshells,” Opt. Lett. 35, 700–702 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11, 2938–2943 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Absil, G. Tessier, M. Gross, M. Atlan, N. Warnasooriya, S. Suck, M. Coppey-Moisan, D. Fournier, “Photothermal heterodyne holography of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 780–786 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. C. Adler, S.-W. Huang, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16, 4376–4393 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Izatt, M. Choma, “Theory of optical coherence tomography,” in Optical coherence tomography, W. Drexler, ed. (Springer Verlag, 2008), pp. 47–72. [CrossRef]
  26. R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, A. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for Fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2450–2452 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Villiger, T. Lasser, “Image formation and tomogram reconstruction in optical coherence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2216–2228 (2010). [CrossRef]
  29. V. Kodach, N. Bosschaart, J. Kalkman, “Concentration dependent scattering coefficients of intralipid measured with OCT,” in “Biomedical Optics,”, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BSuD11. [PubMed]
  30. M. Leutenegger, R. Rao, R. A. Leitgeb, T. Lasser, “Fast focus field calculations,” Opt. Express 14, 11277–11291 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. Herman, T. Wiggins, “Production and uses of diffractionless beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 932–942 (1991). [CrossRef]
  32. D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, “Bessel beams: diffraction in a new light,” Contemp. Phys. 46, 15–28 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Boppart, A. Oldenburg, C. Xu, D. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 041208 (2005). [CrossRef]
  34. A. Oldenburg, F. Toublan, K. Suslick, A. Wei, S. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 6597–6614 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express 17, 23114–23122 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. M. Wagner, P. Weber, T. Bruns, W. S. L. Strauss, R. Wittig, H. Schneckenburger, “Light dose is a limiting factor to maintain cell viability in fluorescence microscopy and single molecule detection,” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, 956–966 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (6668 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited