OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 20 — Sep. 24, 2012
  • pp: 22195–22207

Digitally enhanced homodyne interferometry

Andrew J. Sutton, Oliver Gerberding, Gerhard Heinzel, and Daniel A. Shaddock  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 20, pp. 22195-22207 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1152 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present two variations of a novel interferometry technique capable of simultaneously measuring multiple targets with high sensitivity. The technique performs a homodyne phase measurement by application of a four point phase shifting algorithm, with pseudo-random switching between points to allow multiplexed measurement based upon propagation delay alone. By multiplexing measurements and shifting complexity into signal processing, both variants realise significant complexity reductions over comparable methods. The first variant performs a typical coherent detection with a dedicated reference field and achieves a displacement noise floor 0.8pm/√Hz above 50Hz. The second allows for removal of the dedicated reference, resulting in further simplifications and improved low frequency performance with a 1pm/√Hz noise floor measured down to 20Hz. These results represent the most sensitive measurement performed using this style of interferometry whilst simultaneously reducing the electro-optic footprint.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.2920) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Homodyning
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.4640) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical instruments
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(120.5060) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase modulation
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: July 25, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 30, 2012
Published: September 13, 2012

Andrew J. Sutton, Oliver Gerberding, Gerhard Heinzel, and Daniel A. Shaddock, "Digitally enhanced homodyne interferometry," Opt. Express 20, 22195-22207 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076901 (2009).
  2. T. T.-Y. Lam, M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, and J. H. Chow, “Subfrequency noise signal extraction in fiber-optic strain sensors using postprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2169–2171 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. Klipstein, and W. Folkner, “Intersatellite laser ranging instrument for the GRACE follow-on mission,” J Geodesy 10.1007/s00190-012-0566-3 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Evans, N. Mavalvala, P. Fritschel, R. Bork, B. Bhawal, R. Gustafson, W. Kells, M. Landry, D. Sigg, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and H. Yamamoto, “Lock acquisition of a gravitational-wave interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 598– 600 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bouchez, B. McLeod, D. Acton, and S. Kanneganti, “The Giant Magellan Telescope phasing system,” Proc. SPIE 7 (2012).
  6. N. Bobroff, “Recent advances in displacement measuring interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907–926 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A. Shaddock, “Experimental demonstration of time-delay interferometry for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Anza, M. Armano, E. Balaguer, M. Benedetti, C. Boatella, P. Bosetti, D. Bortoluzzi, N. Brandt, C. Braxmaier, M. Caldwell, L. Carbone, A. Cavalleri, A. Ciccolella, I. Cristofolini, M. Cruise, M. Da Lio, K. Danzmann, D. Desiderio, R. Dolesi, N. Dunbar, W. Fichter, C. Garcia, E. Garcia-Berro, A. F. Garcia Marin, R. Gerndt, A. Gianolio, D. Giardini, R. Gruenagel, A. Hammesfahr, G. Heinzel, J. Hough, D. Hoyl, M. Hueller, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, S. Kemble, C. Killow, D. Kolbe, M. Landgraf, A. Lobo, V. Lorizzo, D. Mance, K. Middleton, F. Nappo, M. Nofrarias, G. Racca, J. Ramos, D. Robertson, M. Sallusti, M. Sandford, J. Sanjuan, P. Sarra, A. Selig, D. Shaul, D. Smart, M. Smit, L. Stagnaro, T. Sumner, C. Tirabassi, S. Tobin, S. Vitale, V. Wand, H. Ward, W. J. Weber, and P. Zweifel, “The LTP experiment on the LISA Pathfinder mission,” Classical Quant. Grav. 22, S125 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. D. A. Shaddock, “Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3355–3357 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Golomb, “On the classification of balanced binary sequences of period 2n-1(Corresp.),” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 26, 730–732 (1980). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Raghavan, M. Shane, and R. Yowell, “Spread spectrum codes for GPS L5,” in 2006 Aerosp. Conf. Proc., 1–7 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. N. Takeuchi, N. Sugimoto, H. Baba, and K. Sakurai, “Random modulation CW lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1382–1386 (1983). [CrossRef]
  13. G. de Vine, D. S. Rabeling, B. J. J. Slagmolen, T. T.-Y. Lam, S. Chua, D. M. Wuchenich, D. E. McClelland, and D. a. Shaddock, “Picometer level displacement metrology with digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Express 17, 828–837 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. D. M. R. Wuchenich, T. T.-Y. Lam, J. H. Chow, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, “Laser frequency noise immunity in multiplexed displacement sensing,” Opt. Lett. 36, 672–674 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. O. P. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, D. A. Shaddock, and B. Ware, “Coherent range-gated laser displacement metrology with compact optical head,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2933–2935 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Dahl, G. Heinzel, B. Willke, K. A. Strain, S. Goler, and K. Danzmann, “Suspension platform interferometer for the AEI 10 m prototype: concept, design and optical layout,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29095024 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. O. Jennrich, “LISA technology and instrumentation,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26153001 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. Halverson, R. Spero, and B. Klipstein, “Overview of the LISA phasemeter,” “6th International LISA Symposium”, AIP Conf. Proc. 873, 654–660 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. I. Bykov, J. J. E. Delgado, A. F. G. Marín, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, “LISA phasemeter development: advanced prototyping,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012017 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Surrel, “Design of algorithms for phase measurements by the use of phase stepping,” Appl. Opt. 35, 51–60 (1996). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Surrel, “Fringe analysis,” Top. Appl. Phys. 77/2000, 55–102 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. E. Hack and J. Burke, “Invited review article: measurement uncertainty of linear phase-stepping algorithms,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 061101 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Heinzel, F. Guzmán Cervantes, A. F. García Marin, J. Kullmann, W. Feng, and K. Danzmann, “Deep phase modulation interferometry,” Opt. Express 18, 19076–19086 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. P. Hariharan and B. Oreb, “Digital phase-shifting interferometry: a simple error-compensating phase calculation algorithm,” Appl. Opt.5–7 (1987).
  25. J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication Systems Engineering (Prentice Hall, 1994).
  26. P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, and I. Shpantzer, “Closed-loop bias control of optical quadrature modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209–2211 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. M. G. Taylor, “Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing,” J. Light-wave Technol. 27, 901–914 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. P. L. M. Heydemann, “Determination and correction of quadrature fringe measurement errors in interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3382–3384 (1981). [CrossRef]
  29. A. E. Rosenbluth and N. Bobroff, “Optical sources of non-linearity in heterodyne interferometers,” Precis. Eng. 12, 7–11 (1990). [CrossRef]
  30. W. Hou and G. Wilkening, “Investigation and compensation of the nonlinearity of heterodyne interferometers,” Precis. Eng. 14, 91–98 (1992). [CrossRef]
  31. T. G. McRae, M. T. L. Hsu, C. H. Freund, D. A. Shaddock, J. Herrmann, and M. B. Gray, “Linearization and minimization of cyclic error with heterodyne laser interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2448–2450 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited