OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 20 — Sep. 24, 2012
  • pp: 22398–22405

Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on Graphene-Oxide-Silicon waveguide

Chao Xu, Yichang Jin, Longzhi Yang, Jianyi Yang, and Xiaoqing Jiang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 20, pp. 22398-22405 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1204 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Graphene has attracted a high level of research interest because of its outstanding electronic transport properties and optical properties. Based on the Kubo formalism and the Maxwell equations, it’s demonstrated that the optical conductivity of graphene can be controlled through the applied voltage. And we find that the graphene-oxide-silicon (GOS) based waveguide can be made into either the electro-absorptive or electron-refractive modulators. Using graphene as the active medium, we present a new electro-refractive Mach-Zender interferometer based on the GOS structure. This new GOS-based electron-refractive modulation mechanism can enable novel architectures for on-chip optical communications.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.7360) Optoelectronics : Waveguide modulators

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: July 16, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 23, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 7, 2012
Published: September 17, 2012

Chao Xu, Yichang Jin, Longzhi Yang, Jianyi Yang, and Xiaoqing Jiang, "Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on Graphene-Oxide-Silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 20, 22398-22405 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits based on horizontal Cu-SiO₂-Si-SiO₂-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5867–5881 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Gu, N. Petrone, J. F. McMillan, A. V. D. Zande, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, J. Hone, and C. W. Wong, “Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 554–559 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” arXiv: 1205.4050v1, 2012.
  12. S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171107 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmon Waveguiding and Hybridization in Individual and Paired Nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6(1), 431–440 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 084314 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Haley, Y. Xuan, Y. Wang, C. H. Y. X. Lim, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopy of Gated Large-Area Graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric Field Effect Tuning of Electron-Phonon Coupling in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. X. L. Wen and Y. L. Long, “An implementation of a root-finding algorithm for transcendental functions in a complex plane,” J. Numer. Methods & Comput. Appl. No. 2, 88–92 (1994).
  23. K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146(9-10), 351–355 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited