OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 21 — Oct. 8, 2012
  • pp: 23821–23831

Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2 waveguides for microphotonic devices

Jonathan D. B. Bradley, Christopher C. Evans, Jennifer T. Choy, Orad Reshef, Parag B. Deotare, François Parsy, Katherine C. Phillips, Marko Lončar, and Eric Mazur  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 21, pp. 23821-23831 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.023821


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2038 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films and submicrometer-wide waveguides with promising optical properties for microphotonic devices. We deposit both amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2 using reactive sputtering and define waveguides using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. For the amorphous TiO2, we obtain propagation losses of 0.12 ± 0.02 dB/mm at 633 nm and 0.04 ± 0.01 dB/mm at 1550 nm in thin films and 2.6 ± 0.5 dB/mm at 633 nm and 0.4 ± 0.2 dB/mm at 1550 nm in waveguides. Using single-mode amorphous TiO2 waveguides, we characterize microphotonic features including microbends and optical couplers. We show transmission of 780-nm light through microbends having radii down to 2 μm and variable signal splitting in microphotonic couplers with coupling lengths of 10 μm.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(130.4310) Integrated optics : Nonlinear
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 31, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 22, 2012
Published: October 2, 2012

Citation
Jonathan D. B. Bradley, Christopher C. Evans, Jennifer T. Choy, Orad Reshef, Parag B. Deotare, François Parsy, Katherine C. Phillips, Marko Lončar, and Eric Mazur, "Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2 waveguides for microphotonic devices," Opt. Express 20, 23821-23831 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-21-23821


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. R. Villeneuve, J. S. Foresi, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature390(6656), 143–145 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y.-S. Oei, H. Binsma, G.-D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature432(7014), 206–209 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express15(10), 6044–6052 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).
  9. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express12(16), 3713–3718 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. M. Tong, and E. Mazur, “Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers,” Opt. Express14(20), 9408–9414 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, and M. Först, “Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 mum femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express14(18), 8336–8346 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Tong, J. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. He, X. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett.5(2), 259–262 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, M. Jun-ichi Takahashi, T. Takahashi, E. Shoji, S. Tamechika, Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 232–240 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express12(13), 2880–2887 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Lončar, “Enhanced single photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 738–743 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. P. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Limiting nature of continuum generation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(9), 091114 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 021111 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. R. Mechiakh, F. Meriche, R. Kremer, R. Bensaha, B. Boudine, and A. Boudrioua, “TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel method for waveguiding applications: Correlation between the structural and optical properties,” Opt. Mater.30(4), 645–651 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt.49(22), 4321–4325 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. D. B. Bradley, C. C. Evans, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, R. Senaratne, E. Marti, and E. Mazur, “Low-loss TiO2 planar waveguides for nanophotonic applications,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Denver, Colorado, 2010), pp. 313−314.
  22. M. Furuhashi, M. Fujiwara, T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Matsubara, M. Taniguchi, S. Takeuchi, and T. Kawai, “Development of microfabricated TiO2 channel waveguides,” AIP Advances 1, 032102/1−5 (2011).
  23. K. Abe, E. Y. M. Teraoka, T. Kita, and H. Yamada, “Nonlinear optical waveguides with rutile TiO2,” Proc. SPIE 7940, 79401G/1−7 (2011).
  24. J. T. Choy, J. D. B. Bradley, P. B. Deotare, I. B. Burgess, C. C. Evans, E. Mazur, and M. Lončar, “Integrated TiO2 resonators for visible photonics,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 539–541 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z.-F. Bi, L. Wang, X.-H. Liu, S.-M. Zhang, M.-M. Dong, Q.-Z. Zhao, X.-L. Wu, and K.-M. Wang, “Optical waveguides in TiO₂ formed by He ion implantation,” Opt. Express20(6), 6712–6719 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, and A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt.28(16), 3303–3317 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express19(18), 17758–17765 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(5), 3337–3350 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. H. Long, A. P. Chen, G. Yang, Y. H. Li, and P. X. Lu, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films517(19), 5601–5604 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. C. C. Evans, J. D. B. Bradley, E. A. Martí-Panameño, and E. Mazur, “Mixed two- and three-photon absorption in bulk rutile (TiO2) around 800 nm,” Opt. Express20(3), 3118–3128 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express16(17), 12987–12994 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. P. S. Porto, P. A. Fleury, and T. C. Damen, “Raman spectra of TiO2, MgF2, ZnF2, FeF2, and MnF2,” Phys. Rev.154(2), 522–526 (1967). [CrossRef]
  33. T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” J. Raman Spectrosc.7(6), 321–324 (1978). [CrossRef]
  34. P. K. Tien, “Light waves in thin films and integrated Optics,” Appl. Opt.10(11), 2395–2413 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.7(4-6), 453–458 (2004). [CrossRef]
  36. N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, “Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium dioxide thin films during annealing treatment,” Thin Solid Films300(1-2), 113–121 (1997). [CrossRef]
  37. Y. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12(8), 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(15), 2052–2054 (1996). [CrossRef]
  39. T. Barwicz and H. I. Smith, “Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2892–2896 (2003). [CrossRef]
  40. M. Gnan, D. S. Macintyre, M. Sorel, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Thoms, “Enhanced stitching for the fabrication of photonic structures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(6), 2034–2037 (2007). [CrossRef]
  41. S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, “Low-loss submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides and corner mirrors,” Opt. Lett.28(13), 1150–1152 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(6), 4752–4757 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.29(6), 06F309 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited