OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 21 — Oct. 8, 2012
  • pp: 24018–24029

Triple-wavelength, narrowband Mg/SiC multilayers with corrosion barriers and high peak reflectance in the 25-80 nm wavelength region

Mónica Fernández-Perea, Regina Soufli, Jeff C. Robinson, Luis Rodríguez De Marcos, Jose A. Méndez, Juan I. Larruquert, and Eric M. Gullikson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 21, pp. 24018-24029 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1910 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have developed new, Mg/SiC multilayer coatings with corrosion barriers which can be used to efficiently and simultaneously reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in single or multiple narrow bands centered at wavelengths in the spectral region from 25 to 80 nm. Corrosion mitigation was attempted through the use of Al-Mg or Al thin layers. Three different multilayer design concepts were developed and deposited by magnetron sputtering and the reflectance was measured at near-normal incidence in a broad spectral range. Standard Mg/SiC multilayers were also deposited and measured for comparison. They were shown to efficiently reflect radiation at a wavelength of 76.9 nm with a peak reflectance of 40.6% at near-normal incidence, the highest experimental reflectance reported at this wavelength for a narrowband coating. The demonstration of multilayer coatings with corrosion resistance and multiple-wavelength EUV performance is of great interest in the development of mirrors for space-borne solar physics telescopes and other applications requiring long-lasting coatings with narrowband response in multiple emission lines across the EUV range.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.4040) Optical devices : Mirrors
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(350.6090) Other areas of optics : Space optics
(310.4165) Thin films : Multilayer design

ToC Category:
Thin Films

Original Manuscript: August 16, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 27, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 27, 2012
Published: October 5, 2012

Mónica Fernández-Perea, Regina Soufli, Jeff C. Robinson, Luis Rodríguez De Marcos, Jose A. Méndez, Juan I. Larruquert, and Eric M. Gullikson, "Triple-wavelength, narrowband Mg/SiC multilayers with corrosion barriers and high peak reflectance in the 25-80 nm wavelength region," Opt. Express 20, 24018-24029 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. B. C. Walker, J. F. Lindblom, T. W. Barbee, and R. B. Hoover, “Soft x-ray images of the solar corona with a normal-incidence Cassegrain multilayer telescope,” Science241(4874), 1781–1787 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. De Pontieu, S. W. McIntosh, M. Carlsson, V. H. Hansteen, T. D. Tarbell, P. Boerner, J. Martinez-Sykora, C. J. Schrijver, and A. M. Title, “The origins of hot plasma in the solar corona,” Science331(6013), 55–58 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. P. Hau-Riege, H. N. Chapman, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, S. Bajt, R. A. London, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, R. Nietubyc, L. Juha, J. Kuba, E. Spiller, S. Baker, R. Bionta, K. Sokolowski Tinten, N. Stojanovic, B. Kjornrattanawanich, E. M. Gullikson, E. Plönjes, S. Toleikis, and T. Tschentscher, “Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(14), 145502 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Heinbuch, M. Grisham, D. Martz, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a desk-top size high repetition rate soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Express13(11), 4050–4055 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett.25(5), 356–358 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Y. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high-repetition rate 46.9-nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(6), 1495–1501 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Seminario, J. J. Rocca, R. A. Depine, B. Bach, and B. Bach, “Characterization of diffraction gratings by use of a tabletop soft-x-ray laser,” Appl. Opt.40(30), 5539–5544 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Shin, F. Dong, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, “Extreme ultraviolet photoionization of aldoses and ketoses,” Chem. Phys. Lett.506(4-6), 161–166 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Wachulak, M. Grisham, S. Heinbuch, D. Martz, W. Rockward, D. Hill, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. Anderson, and M. Marconi, “Interferometric lithography with an amplitude division interferometer and a desktop extreme ultraviolet laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(7), B104–B107 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Brewer, F. Brizuela, P. Wachulak, D. H. Martz, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Artyukov, A. G. Ponomareko, V. V. Kondratenko, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. Menoni, “Single-shot extreme ultraviolet laser imaging of nanostructures with wavelength resolution,” Opt. Lett.33(5), 518–520 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Hecquet, F. Delmotte, M.-F. Ravet-Krill, S. Rossi, A. Jérome, F. Bridou, F. Varnière, E. Meltchakov, F. Auchère, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nanaronne, “Design and performance of two-channel EUV multilayer mirrors with enhanced spectral selectivity,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 401–408 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Ejima, Y. Kondo, and M. Watanabe, “Two-color reflection multilayers for He-I and He-II resonance lines for microscopic ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy using Schwarzschild objective,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 1), 376–379 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. J. Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys.275(1-2), 41–66 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. A. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” SPIE Proc.5901, 59010M, 59010M-11 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, L. Rodriguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Perea, S. L. Baker, A. L. Aquila, F. J. Dollar, J. A. Méndez, J. I. Larruquert, L. Golub, and P. Boerner, “In-band and out-of-band reflectance calibrations of the EUV multilayer mirrors of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” SPIE Proc.in press.
  16. D. Martínez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Microroughness measurements and EUV calibration of the Solar Ultraviolet Imager multilayer-coated mirrors,” SPIE Proc.in press.
  17. H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.144–147, 1047–1049 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, Y. Liu, and E. M. Gullikson, “Tri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity and wide bandwidth for 25 to 50 nm extreme ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express17(24), 22102–22107 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. L. Windt, S. Donguy, J. Seely, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Experimental comparison of extreme-ultraviolet multilayers for solar physics,” Appl. Opt.43(9), 1835–1848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” SPIE Proc.5193, 155–163 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. D. L. Windt and J. A. Bellotti, “Performance, structure, and stability of SiC/Al multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet applications,” Appl. Opt.48(26), 4932–4941 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Zhu, S. Zhou, H. Li, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, K. L. Guen, M.-H. Hu, J.-M. André, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt.49(20), 3922–3925 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Méndez, J. A. Aznárez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Narrowband multilayer coatings for the extreme ultraviolet range of 50-92 nm,” Opt. Express17(25), 22773–22784 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “Terbium-based extreme ultraviolet multilayers,” Opt. Lett.30(23), 3186–3188 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 965–967 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. F. Seely, Y. A. Uspenskii, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and D. L. Windt, “Coated photodiode technique for the determination of the optical constants of reactive elements: La and Tb,” SPIE Proc.6317, 63170T, 63170T-9 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. M. G. Pelizzo, S. Fineschi, A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, P. Nicolosi, J. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and D. L. Windt, “Long-term stability of Mg/SiC multilayers,” Opt. Eng.51(2), 023801 (2012). [CrossRef]
  28. R. Soufli, M. Fernández-Perea, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, J. Alameda, and C. C. Walton, “Spontaneously intermixed Al-Mg barriers enable corrosion-resistant Mg/SiC multilayer coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043111 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Vidal-Dasilva, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, and J. I. Larruquert, “Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered magnesium films in the 25–1300 eV energy range,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063517 (2010). [CrossRef]
  30. E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: Applications to aluminum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612–1628 (1980), as compiled by E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).
  31. R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt.36(22), 5499–5507 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. H. R. Philipp, “Influence of oxide layers on the determination of the optical properties of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2835–2839 (1972), as compiled by E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).
  33. M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(11), 2880–2887 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. L. Windt, “IMD: Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys.12(4), 360–370 (1998), http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html . [CrossRef]
  35. J. B. Kortright and D. L. Windt, “Amorphous silicon carbide coatings for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Opt.27(14), 2841–2846 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
  37. The observation that the thickness of the intermixed Al-Mg layer is approximately equal to the sum of the thicknesses of the constituent Al and Mg layers was made in Ref. [28] for Al and Mg thicknesses of 20 and 19 nm, respectively. This assumption may not hold for Al and Mg layers in different thickness ranges. At the time of writing of this manuscript, this is the best assumption that can be made based on experimental evidence.
  38. R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt.46(18), 3736–3746 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character82(553), 172–175 (1909). [CrossRef]
  40. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electr. Spectr. Rel. Phenom.92(1-3), 265–272 (1998). [CrossRef]
  41. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” SPIE Proc.4343, 363–373 (2001). [CrossRef]
  42. J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited