OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 25 — Dec. 3, 2012
  • pp: 27810–27819

Precise tailoring of acoustic velocity in optical fibers by hydrogenation and UV exposure

Fanting Kong and Liang Dong  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 25, pp. 27810-27819 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027810


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1233 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Tailoring of acoustic properties in solids has many potential applications in both acoustics, i.e. acoustic gratings and waveguides, and photon-phonon interactions, i.e. stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). One immediate application is in the area of SBS suppression in optical fibers. We demonstrate, for the first time, a post-processing technique where hydrogen is diffused in to a fiber core and then locally and permanently bonded to core glass by a subsequent UV exposure. It is discovered that local acoustic velocity can be altered by as much as ~2% this way, with strong potential for much further improvements with an increased hydrogen pressure. It is also found that the large change in acoustic velocity is primarily due to a reduction in bulk modulus, possibly as a result of network bonds being broken up by the addition of OH bonds. It is possible to use this technique to precisely tailor acoustic velocity along a fiber for more optimized SBS suppression in a fiber amplifier. Change in Brillouin Stokes frequency of ~320MHz at 1.064μm was observed.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(190.5890) Nonlinear optics : Scattering, stimulated
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 24, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 14, 2012
Published: November 29, 2012

Citation
Fanting Kong and Liang Dong, "Precise tailoring of acoustic velocity in optical fibers by hydrogenation and UV exposure," Opt. Express 20, 27810-27819 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-25-27810


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Q. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. R. Bickham, and R. Mishra, “Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold,” Opt. Express13(14), 5338–5346 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express15(13), 8290–8299 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Gray, A. Liu, D. T. Walton, J. Wang, M. J. Li, X. Chen, A. B. Ruffin, J. A. Demeritt, and L. A. Zenteno, “502 Watt, single transverse mode, narrow linewidth, bidirectionally pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express15(25), 17044–17050 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. D. Dragic, “SBS suppressed, single mode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. of OFC (2009) paper JThA10.
  5. M. D. Mermelstein, “SBS threshold measurements and acoustic beam propagation modeling in guiding and anti-guiding single mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express17(18), 16225–16237 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. J. Ward and J. Spring, “Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS-suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles,” Opt. Express17(18), 15685–15699 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Mermelstein, M. J. Andrejco, J. Fini, A. Yablon, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. H. McCurdy, “11.2dB SBS gain suppression in a large mode area Yb-doped optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE6873, 68730N, 68730N-7 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Dong, “Formulation of a complex mode solver for arbitrary circular acoustic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3162–3175 (2010).
  9. L. Dong, “Limits of stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression in optical fibers with transverse acoustic waveguide designs,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3156–3161 (2010).
  10. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber by changing core radius,” Electron. Lett.31(8), 668–669 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Kovalev and R. G. Harrison, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in high-power single-frequency fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 161–163 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. L. Floch and P. Cambon, “Study of Brillouin gain spectrum in standard single-mode optical fiber at low temperature (1.4-370K) and high hydrostatic pressure (1-250Bars),” Opt. Commun.219(1-6), 395–410 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. N. Shibata, K. Okamoto, and Y. Azuma, “Longitudinal acoustic modes and Brillouin gain spectra for GeO2-doped core single mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6(6), 1167–1174 (1989). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulation and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(1), 50–57 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Evert, A. James, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, P. Dragic, L. Dong, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Longitudinally-graded optical fibers,” Opt. Express20(16), 17393–17401 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, “Sapphire-derived all-glass optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(9), 629–633 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Stone, “Interactions of hydrogen and deuterium with silica optical fibers, as review,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(5), 712–733 (1987). [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Enhanced photo-induced refractive index changes in optical fibers via low temperature hydrogen loading,” Proc. of CLEO (1993) paper CPD20.
  20. R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanism of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett.29(14), 1234–1235 (1993). [CrossRef]
  21. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a techqnue for achieving ultra-high UV photosneitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.29(13), 1191–1193 (1993). [CrossRef]
  22. P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Thermal enhancement of UV photosensitivity in H2-loaded optical fibers,” Proc. of OFC (1995) paper WN1.
  23. P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Thermal enhancement of UV photosensitivity in GeO2 and P2O5 doped optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(16), 2034–2037 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, “Thermal and photo-induced reaction of H2 with germanosilicate optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids168(1-2), 195–199 (1994). [CrossRef]
  25. O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids203, 19–26 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, “Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity,” Proc. SPIE1516, 185–199 (1991). [CrossRef]
  27. I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Robin, and C. Zeringue, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 260 W output,” Opt. Express17(26), 24317–24333 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. M. Derosier, “Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical fiber characterization,” Electron. Lett.22, 1012–1013 (1986).
  29. N. Shibata, R. G. Waarts, and R. P. Braun, “Brillouin-gain spectra for single-mode fibers having pure-silica, GeO2-doped, and P2O5-doped cores,” Opt. Lett.12(4), 269–271 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. Le Parc, C. Levelut, J. Pelous, V. Martinez, and B. Champagnon, “Influence of fictive temperature and composition of silica glass on anomalous elastic behaviour,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7507–7527 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Kushibiki, T. C. Wei, Y. Ohashi, and A. Tada, “Ultrasonic microspectroscopy characterization of silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys.87(6), 3113–3121 (2000). [CrossRef]
  32. M. D. Gallagher and U. L. Osterberg, “Ultraviolet absorption measurements in single-mode optical glass fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(15), 1791–1793 (1992). [CrossRef]
  33. R. M. Atkins, “Measurement of the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.17(7), 469–471 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited