OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 26 — Dec. 10, 2012
  • pp: B306–B314

Discrete mode tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

Subhasish Chakraborty, Owen Marshall, Chen Wei Hsin, Md. Khairuzzaman, Harvey Beere, and David Ritchie  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 26, pp. B306-B314 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.00B306


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (7837 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A holographically designed, aperiodic distributed feedback grating is used as a multi-resonance filter and embedded within an existing Fabry-Pérot (FP) terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) cavity. Balancing the feedback strengths of the filter resonances and the FP cavity creates a system capable of a high degree of single-mode selectivity, which is sensitive to changes in driving current. Multi-moded QCLs operating around 2.9 THz are thus modified to achieve purely electronic discrete tuning spanning over 160 GHz with an average tuning resolution of 30 GHz. Applying the same multi-resonance filter to QCLs with gain peaks around 2.65 and 2.9 THz leads to dual-mode lasing with an electrically controlled frequency separation of between 190 and 267 GHz. A phase sensitive mode selection mechanism is experimentally confirmed by the observation of divergent fine-tuning of the lasing modes.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(130.5296) Integrated optics : Photonic crystal waveguides
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
(140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

ToC Category:
Waveguide and Optoelectronic Devices

History
Original Manuscript: October 1, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 8, 2012
Published: November 29, 2012

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Subhasish Chakraborty, Owen Marshall, Chen Wei Hsin, Md. Khairuzzaman, Harvey Beere, and David Ritchie, "Discrete mode tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 20, B306-B314 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-26-B306


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, G. Davies, and E. Linfield, “Loss-coupled distributed feedback far-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett.41(7), 419–421 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30(21), 2909–2911 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Chakraborty, T. Chakraborty, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Fowler, C. H. Worrall, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral engineering of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using focused ion beam etched photonic lattices,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 404–405 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech.1(1), 76–84 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. A. W. M. Lee, T.-Y. Kao, D. Burghoff, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz tomography using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 217–219 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(14), 141102 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, P. Dean, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(18), 181101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Freeman, J. Madéo, A. Brewer, S. Dhillon, O. P. Marshall, N. Jukam, D. Oustinov, J. Tignon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Dual wavelength emission from a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051120 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicuccia, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 732–737 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Jayaraman, Z.-M. Chuang, and L. A. Coldren, “Theory, design, and performance of extended tuning range semiconductor lasers with sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(6), 1824–1834 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Blanchard, S. Menzel, C. Pflűgl, L. Diehl, C. Wang, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, L. Dal Negro, and F. Capasso, “Gratings with an aperiodic basis: single-mode emission in multi-wavelength lasers,” New J. Phys.13(11), 113023 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 261112 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Fuchs, J. Seufert, J. Koeth, J. Semmel, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Widely tunable quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavities for gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181111 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Chakraborty, C.-W. Hsin, O. Marshall, and M. Khairuzzaman, “Switchable aperiodic distributed feedback lasers: time domain modelling and experiment,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper JW2A.101 (2012).
  18. S. Chakraborty, C.-W. Hsin, O. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Mode switching using weak aperiodic DFB gratings within Fabry-Pérot lasers,” in PECS-X: 10th International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures, Santa Fe, USA, (2012).
  19. H. Kogelnik, “Filter response of nonuniform almost-periodic structures,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.55, 109–126 (1976).
  20. D. L. Jaggard and Y. Kim, “Accurate one-dimensional inverse scattering using a nonlinear renormalization technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2(11), 1922–1930 (1985). [CrossRef]
  21. M. C. Parker, R. J. Mears, and S. D. Walker, “A Fourier transform theory for photon localization and evanescence in photonic bandgap structures,” J. Opt. A.: Pure Appl. Opt.3(6), S171–S183 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Chakraborty, M. C. Parker, and R. J. Mears, “A Fourier (k-) space design approach for controllable photonic band and localization states in aperiodic lattices,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.3(2-3), 139–147 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, C.-W. Hsin, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Longitudinal computer-generated holograms for digital frequency control in electronically tunable terahertz lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(12), 121103 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Carroll, J. Whiteaway, and D. Plumb, Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Lasers (IEE SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1998).
  25. S. A. Wood, R. G. S. Plumb, D. J. Robbins, N. D. Whitbread, and P. J. Williams, “Time domain modelling of sampled grating tunable lasers,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron.147(1), 43–48 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, and M. Calligaro, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(16), 161108 (2007). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1674–1676 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. J. R. Freeman, C. Worrall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. Alton, H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency manipulation of THz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 303–305 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. J. R. Freeman, A. Brewer, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, S. S. Dhillon, J. Tignon, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Broad gain in a bound-to-continuum quantum cascade laser with heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 241108 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited