OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 28 — Dec. 31, 2012
  • pp: 29890–29899

Two-photon polymerization with variable repetition rate bursts of femtosecond laser pulses

Tommaso Baldacchini, Scott Snider, and Ruben Zadoyan  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 28, pp. 29890-29899 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1761 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe fabrication of microstructures by two-photon polymerization using bursts of femtosecond laser pulses. With the aid of an acousto-optic modulator driven by a function generator, two-photon polymerization is performed at variable burst repetition rates. We investigate how the time between the bursts of laser pulses influences the ultimate dimensions of lines written in a photosensitive resin. We observe that when using the same laser fluence, polymer lines fabricated at different burst repetition rates have different dimensions. In particular, the widths of two-photon polymerized lines become smaller with decreasing burst repetition rates. Based on the thermal properties of the resin and experimental writing conditions, we attribute this effect to localized heat accumulation.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

Original Manuscript: October 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 8, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 14, 2012
Published: December 21, 2012

Tommaso Baldacchini, Scott Snider, and Ruben Zadoyan, "Two-photon polymerization with variable repetition rate bursts of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 20, 29890-29899 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photonics Rev.2(1-2), 100–111 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4494–4498 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Klein, B. S. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1341–1345 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater.3(7), 444–447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Li, E. Gershgoren, G. Kumi, W.-Y. Chen, P. T. Ho, W. N. Herman, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-performance microring resonators fabricated with multiphoton absoprtion polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3668–3671 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip10(15), 1993–1996 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Maruo, A. Takaura, and Y. Saito, “Optically driven micropump with a twin spiral microrotor,” Opt. Express17(21), 18525–18532 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(6), 1796–1797 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. L. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, “Designable 3D nanofabrication by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Nano Today5(5), 435–448 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 312–314 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology16(6), 846–849 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long esposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173133 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography,” Opt. Express15(6), 3426–3436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science324(5929), 910–913 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(32), 3578–3582 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast polymerization inhibition by stimulated emission depletion for three-dimensional nanolithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(10), OP65–OP69 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. P. Stocker, L. J. Li, R. R. Gattass, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton photoresists giving nanoscale resolution that is inversely dependent on exposure time,” Nat. Chem.3(3), 225–227 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221102 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131106 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, G. Bickauskaite, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18(10), 10209–10221 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Decker, “Photoinitiated curing of multifunctional monomers,” Acta Polym.45(5), 333–347 (1994). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Jockusch, I. V. Koptyug, P. F. McGarry, G. W. Sluggett, N. J. Turro, and D. M. Watkins, “A Steady-State and Picosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and a Bis(acyl)phosphine Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(47), 11495–11501 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(50), 14952–14958 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Malinauskas, P. Danilevičius, and S. Juodkazis, “Three-dimensional micro-/nano-structuring via direct write polymerization with picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(6), 5602–5610 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates,” Opt. Express14(12), 5279–5284 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Chemical mapping of three-dimensiona microstructures fabricated by two-photon polymerization using CARS microscopy,” in Proc. of SPIE, 2009), 72010Q–72011.
  30. T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of Microstructures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(38), 12663–12668 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional focal spots related to two-photon excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(20), 3673–3675 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. S. Maruo, T. Hasegawa, and N. Yoshimura, “Single-anchor support and supercritical CO2 drying enable high-precision microfabrication of three-dimensional structures,” Opt. Express17(23), 20945–20951 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. B. Sun, T. Suwa, K. Takada, R. P. Zaccaria, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Shape precompesation in two-photon laser nanowriting of photonic lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3708–3710 (2004). [CrossRef]
  34. A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2(11), 2257–2262 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature412(6848), 697–698 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett.362(3-4), 291–295 (2002). [CrossRef]
  37. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett.28(5), 301–303 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004). [CrossRef]
  39. N. Fang, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Diffusion-limited photopolymerization in scanning micro-stereolithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(8), 1839–1842 (2004). [CrossRef]
  40. A. Pikulin and N. Bityurin, “Spatial resolution in polymerization of sample features at nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. B75(19), 195430 (2007). [CrossRef]
  41. I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano6(3), 2302–2311 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(3), 551–556 (2010). [CrossRef]
  43. L. Flach and R. P. Chartoff, “A process model for nonisothermal photopolymerization with a laser light source. I: basic model development,” Polym. Eng. Sci.35(6), 483–492 (1995). [CrossRef]
  44. J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of femtosecond-laser-structured PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 27–31 (2010). [CrossRef]
  45. J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. (2012).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited