OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 5 — Feb. 27, 2012
  • pp: 5775–5782

A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures

Pubo Qu, Feng Chen, Hewei Liu, Qing Yang, Jing Lu, Jinhai Si, Yiqing Wang, and Xun Hou  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 5775-5782 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (7407 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A biologically inspired compound-eye structure, which composes of ~5,867 honeycomb-patterned microlenses, was fabricated on a hemispherical shell. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, which involves a femtosecond laser-enhanced wet etching and casting process followed by a thermomechanical process to convert the film into a hemispherical surface. By optimizing the parameters of thermomechanical process to form the curvilinear surface, the experimental result shows that the microlenses are omnidirectionally aligned on the dome with lens diameters of ~85 µm and the angle between two lens of ~2°, and the individual microlenses have rudimentary focusing and imaging properties. The artificial compound-eye structure fabricated by this method has great potential applications in scale-invariant processing, robot vision, and fast motion detection.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: January 5, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 4, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 4, 2012
Published: February 24, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Pubo Qu, Feng Chen, Hewei Liu, Qing Yang, Jing Lu, Jinhai Si, Yiqing Wang, and Xun Hou, "A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures," Opt. Express 20, 5775-5782 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Kim, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Artificial ommatidia by self-aligned microlenses and waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 5–7 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. D. Straw, E. J. Warrant, and D. C. O’Carroll, “A “bright zone” in male hoverfly (Eristalis tenax) eyes and associated faster motion detection and increased contrast sensitivity,” J. Exp. Biol.209(21), 4339–4354 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Brückner, J. Duparré, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Artificial neural superposition eye,” Opt. Express15(19), 11922–11933 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science312(5773), 557–561 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. W. Kimball, “The compound eye,” Kimball’s Biology Pages, http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CompoundEye.html .
  6. G. L. Lin and C. C. Cheng, “An artificial compound eye tracking pan-tilt motion,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 35, 242–248 (2008).
  7. K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and it’s application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev.3(4), 264–268 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Lichtensteiger and P. Eggenberger, “Evolving the morphology of a compound eye on a robot,” 1999 Third European Workshop on Advanced Mobile Robots (Eurobot’ 99). Proceedings (Cat. No.99EX355) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Zurich, Switzerland, 1999), 127–134.
  9. R. Shogenji, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, and J. Tanida, “Bimodal fingerprint capturing system based on compound-eye imaging module,” Appl. Opt.43(6), 1355–1359 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Artificial compound eye zoom camera,” Bioinspir. Biomim.3(4), 046008 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt.40(11), 1806–1813 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim.1(1), R1–R16 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Artificial apposition compound eye fabricated by micro-optics technology,” Appl. Opt.43(22), 4303–4310 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Radtke, J. Duparré, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser lithographic fabrication and characterization of a spherical artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express15(6), 3067–3077 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. F. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, B. Yang, and L. Jiang, “The dry-style antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes and artificial analogues prepared by soft lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(17), 2213–2217 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. L. P. Lee and R. Szema, “Inspirations from biological optics for advanced photonic systems,” Science310(5751), 1148–1150 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. H. Zhao, Y. J. Xie, S. P. He, S. Fu, and Z. W. Lu, “Single step fabrication of microlens arrays with hybrid HfO2-SiO2 sol-gel glass on conventional lens surface,” Opt. Express13(15), 5846–5852 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Chen, H. W. Liu, Q. Yang, X. H. Wang, C. Hou, H. Bian, W. W. Liang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Maskless fabrication of concave microlens arrays on silica glasses by a femtosecond-laser-enhanced local wet etching method,” Opt. Express18(19), 20334–20343 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. http://www.lzschool.com/show.aspx?id=12135&cid=71&page=13 .
  20. R. Völkel, M. Eisner, and K. J. Weible, “Miniaturized imaging systems,” Microelectron. Eng.67–68, 461–472 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. R. S. Stein and J. Powers, Topics in Polymer Physics (Imperial College Press, 2006), Chap. 1.
  22. D. Bower, An Introduction to Polymer Physics (Cambridge University Press, 2002), Chap. 6.
  23. B. Greiner, W. A. Ribi, and E. J. Warrant, “Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis,” Cell Tissue Res.316(3), 377–390 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. G. Stavenga, “Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. II. Dependence on facet lens F-number and rhabdomere type in Drosophila,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol.189(3), 189–202 (2003). [PubMed]
  25. H. B. Barlow, “The size of ommatidia in apposition eyes,” J. Exp. Biol.29, 667–674 (1952).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited