OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 9 — Apr. 23, 2012
  • pp: 10212–10217

On-chip three-dimensional high-Q microcavities fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

Jintian Lin, Shangjie Yu, Yaoguang Ma, Wei Fang, Fei He, Lingling Qiao, Limin Tong, Ya Cheng, and Zhizhan Xu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 9, pp. 10212-10217 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (11934 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report on the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) high-Q whispering gallery microcavities on a fused silica chip by femtosecond laser microfabriction, enabled by the 3D nature of femtosecond laser direct writing. The processing mainly consists of formation of freestanding microdisks by femtosecond laser direct writing and subsequent wet chemical etching. CO2 laser annealing is followed to smooth the microcavity surface. Microcavities with arbitrary tilting angle, lateral and vertical positioning are demonstrated, and the quality (Q)-factor of a typical microcavity is measured to be up to 1.07 × 106, which is currently limited by the low spatial resolution of the motion stage used during the laser patterning and can be improved with motion stages of higher resolutions.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

Original Manuscript: March 2, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 11, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 11, 2012
Published: April 19, 2012

Jintian Lin, Shangjie Yu, Yaoguang Ma, Wei Fang, Fei He, Lingling Qiao, Limin Tong, Ya Cheng, and Zhizhan Xu, "On-chip three-dimensional high-Q microcavities fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 20, 10212-10217 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part II: applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 15–32 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(3), 289–291 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(6), 561–563 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 46–49 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Cheng, H. L. Tsai, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of 3D microoptical lenses in photosensitive glass using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.85(1), 11–14 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211108 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett.26(5), 277–279 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express12(10), 2120–2129 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 2007–2009 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Ams, G. Marshall, D. Spence, and M. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express13(15), 5676–5681 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. He, J. Lin, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of hollow optical waveguides in fused silica by three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys. B105(2), 379–384 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Integrated microchips for biological analysis fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” MRS Bull.36(12), 1020–1027 (2011). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip11(12), 2109–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Schaap, Y. Bellouard, and T. Rohrlack, “Optofluidic lab-on-a-chip for rapid algae population screening,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 658–664 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(21), 211105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. J. F. Ku, Q. D. Chen, R. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Whispering-gallery-mode microdisk lasers produced by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2871–2873 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, T. Beck, M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Direct laser writing for active and passive high-Q polymer microdisks on silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11451–11456 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 453–455 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Serpengüzel, S. Arnold, and G. Griffel, “Excitation of resonances of microspheres on an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 654–656 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited