OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Bernard Kippelen
  • Vol. 20, Iss. S1 — Jan. 2, 2012
  • pp: A133–A140

Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes without an electron-blocking layer by using special designed p-type doped InGaN barriers

Yun-Yan Zhang, Guang-Han Fan, Yi-An Yin, and Guang-Rui Yao  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue S1, pp. A133-A140 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1339 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this study, the characteristics of the nitride-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) without an electron-blocking layer (EBL) are analyzed numerically. The emission spectra, carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), energy band diagrams, electrostatic fields, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are investigated. The simulation results indicate that the LED without an EBL has a better hole-injection efficiency and smaller electrostatic fields in its active region over the conventional LED with an AlGaN EBL. The simulation results also show that the LED without an EBL has severe efficiency droop. However, when the special designed p-type doped InGaN QW barriers are used, the efficiency droop is markedly improved and the electroluminescence (EL) emission intensity is greatly enhanced which is due to the improvement of the hole uniformity in the active region and small electron leakage.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(150.2945) Machine vision : Illumination design

ToC Category:
Light-Emitting Diodes

Original Manuscript: August 15, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 11, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 29, 2011
Published: January 1, 2012

Yun-Yan Zhang, Guang-Han Fan, Yi-An Yin, and Guang-Rui Yao, "Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes without an electron-blocking layer by using special designed p-type doped InGaN barriers," Opt. Express 20, A133-A140 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063107 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. Y.-L. Li, Y.-R. Huang, and Y.-H. Lai, “Efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with varying quantum well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181113 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, M. R. Krames, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to Piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(1), 019903–1 (2007).
  8. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: Beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 121105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes: Efficiency at High Injection Levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. V. S. Sizov, V. V. Neploh, A. F. Tsatsulnikov, A. V. Sakharov, W. V. Lundin, E. E. Zavarin, A. E. Nikolaev, A. M. Mintairov, and J. L. Merz, “Study of tunneling transport of carriers in structures with an InGaN/GaN active region,” Semiconductors44(12), 1567–1575 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 2006–2008 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(6), 977–1000 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(32), L761–L763 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(9), L190–L191 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.43(12), 1175–1182 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Arif, H. P. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. A. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(1), 319–323 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(20), 202107 (2006). [CrossRef]
  26. H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and Y. K. Kuo, “Advantages of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with AlGaN barriers,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1368–1370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited