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Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 21, Iss. S1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: A60–A76

Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array

Stephen Y. Chou and Wei Ding  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue S1, pp. A60-A76 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.000A60


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Abstract

Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed “plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell”, that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less–4.5 fold or more lower than the best reported value for a 100 nm thick ITO film, giving a lowest reflectance-sheet-resistance product. Finally, fabrication of PlaCSH has used nanoimprint on 4” wafer and is scalable to roll-to-roll manufacturing. The designs, fabrications, and findings are applicable to thin solar cells in other materials.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(350.6050) Other areas of optics : Solar energy
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Photovoltaics

History
Original Manuscript: September 12, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 14, 2012
Published: November 28, 2012

Citation
Stephen Y. Chou and Wei Ding, "Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array," Opt. Express 21, A60-A76 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-S1-A60


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