OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 11 — Jun. 3, 2013
  • pp: 13040–13051

Micro-focusing of attosecond pulses by grazing-incidence toroidal mirrors

L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, S. Anumula, A. Trabattoni, and M. Nisoli  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 11, pp. 13040-13051 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.013040


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1530 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The design of optical systems for micro-focusing of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses through grazing-incidence toroidal mirrors is presented. Aim of the proposed configuration is to provide a micro-focused image through a high demagnification of the XUV source with the following characteristics: i) almost negligible aberrations; ii) long exit arm to easily accommodate at the output the experimental setups required for the applications of the focused attosecond pulses; iii) possibility to have an intermediate region where the XUV beam is collimated, in order to insert a plane split-mirror for the generation of two XUV pulse replicas to be used in a XUV-pump/XUV-probe setup. We present the analytical and numerical study of two optical configurations characterized by two sections based on the use of toroidal mirrors. The first section provides a demagnified image of the source in an intermediate focus that is free from defocusing but has a large coma aberration. The second section consists of a relay mirror that is mounted in Z-shaped geometry with respect to the previous one, in order to give a stigmatic image with a coma that is opposite to that provided by the first section. An example is provided to demonstrate the capability to achieve spot sizes in the 5-15 μm range with a demagnification higher than 10 in a compact envelope.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(080.1010) Geometric optics : Aberrations (global)
(320.7160) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast technology
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
(080.4035) Geometric optics : Mirror system design

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: March 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 26, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 6, 2013
Published: May 20, 2013

Citation
L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, S. Anumula, A. Trabattoni, and M. Nisoli, "Micro-focusing of attosecond pulses by grazing-incidence toroidal mirrors," Opt. Express 21, 13040-13051 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-11-13040


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Jaeglè, Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation (Springer, 2006).
  2. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron.33(1), 17–59 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Mashiko, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “Focusing coherent soft-x-ray radiation to a micrometer spot size with an intensity of 1014 W/cm2.,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1927–1929 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Valentin, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, Th. Lefrou, G. Grillon, F. Augé, G. Mullot, Ph. Balcou, P. Mercère, and Ph. Zeitoun, “Imaging and quality assessment of high-harmonic focal spots,” Opt. Lett.28(12), 1049–1051 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Mashiko, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “Focusing multiple high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray regions by a platinum-coated ellipsoidal mirror,” Appl. Opt.45(3), 573–577 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, F. Delmotte, and P. Chavel, “Spatiotemporal distortions of attosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(6), 1395–1403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Bourassin-Bouchet, M. Stephens, S. de Rossi, F. Delmotte, and P. Chavel, “Duration of ultrashort pulses in the presence of spatio-temporal coupling,” Opt. Express19(18), 17357–17371 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. A. M. Malvezzi, L. Garifo, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence high-resolution stigmatic spectrograph with two optical elements,” Appl. Opt.20(14), 2560–2565 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. E. Aspnes, “Imaging performance of mirror pairs for grazing-incidence applications: a comparison,” Appl. Opt.21(14), 2642–2646 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. M. Malvezzi and G. Tondello, “Grazing incidence toroidal mirror pairs in imaging and spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Opt.22(16), 2444–2447 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. R. Bennett, “Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. I. Design,” Appl. Opt.40(25), 4570–4587 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. R. Bennett and J. A. Folta, “Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. I. Tolerance analysis,” Appl. Opt.40(25), 4588–4607 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Haber, “The torus grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.40(3), 153–165 (1950). [CrossRef]
  21. L. Poletto, P. Nicolosi, and G. Tondello, “Optical design of a stigmatic extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopic system for emission and absorption studies of laser-produced plasmas,” Appl. Opt.41(1), 172–181 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw Hill, 2005).
  23. L. Eybert, M. Wulff, W. Reichenbach, A. Plech, F. Schotte, E. Gagliardini, L. Zhang, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. Freund, “The toroidal mirror for single-pulse experiments on ID09B,” SPIE Proc. 4782, 246–257 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, P. A. Montanez, J. Krzywinski, and R. Signorato, “Ultra-precise characterization of LCLS hard X-ray focusing mirrors by high resolution slope measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express20(4), 4525–4536 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited