OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 12 — Jun. 17, 2013
  • pp: 14362–14367

Nanoimprinted polymer lasers with threshold below 100 W/cm2 using mixed-order distributed feedback resonators

Yue Wang, Georgios Tsiminis, Alexander L. Kanibolotsky, Peter J. Skabara, Ifor D.W. Samuel, and Graham A. Turnbull  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 12, pp. 14362-14367 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.014362


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1582 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Organic semiconductor lasers were fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography with thresholds as low as 57 W/cm2 under 4 ns pulsed operation. The nanoimprinted lasers employed mixed-order distributed feedback resonators, with second-order gratings surrounded by first-order gratings, combined with a light-emitting conjugated polymer. They were pumped by InGaN LEDs to produce green-emitting lasers, with thresholds of 208 W/cm2 (102 nJ/pulse). These hybrid lasers incorporate a scalable UV-nanoimprint lithography process, compatible with high-performance LEDs, therefore we have demonstrated a coherent, compact, low-cost light source.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(110.4235) Imaging systems : Nanolithography
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 29, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 30, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 30, 2013
Published: June 10, 2013

Citation
Yue Wang, Georgios Tsiminis, Alexander L. Kanibolotsky, Peter J. Skabara, Ifor D.W. Samuel, and Graham A. Turnbull, "Nanoimprinted polymer lasers with threshold below 100 W/cm2 using mixed-order distributed feedback resonators," Opt. Express 21, 14362-14367 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-12-14362


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, “Diode-pumped polymeric dye lasers operating at a pump power level of 10 mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113310 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Klinkhammer, X. Liu, K. Huska, Y. X. Shen, S. Vanderheiden, S. Valouch, C. Vannahme, S. Bräse, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode,” Opt. Express20(6), 6357–6364 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, G. Violakis, and S. Pissadakis, “Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by direct laser interference ablation,” Opt. Express15(7), 3968–3973 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, “Integration of active and passive polymer optics,” Opt. Express15(7), 3931–3939 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express19(23), 22443–22454 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996). [CrossRef]
  22. L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater.19(4), 495–513 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998). [CrossRef]
  26. C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited