OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 17 — Aug. 26, 2013
  • pp: 19900–19921

Heterodyne interferometer for absolute amplitude vibration measurements with femtometer sensitivity

Erlend Leirset, Helge E. Engan, and Astrid Aksnes  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 17, pp. 19900-19921 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1369 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A heterodyne interferometer for highly sensitive vibration measurements in the range 100kHz − 1.3GHz is presented. The interferometer measures absolute amplitude and phase. The signal processing of the setup is analyzed and described in detail to optimize noise suppression. A noise floor of 7.1fm/Hz1/2 at 21MHz was achieved experimentally where the bandwidth is the inverse of all time needed for filter settling and signal sampling. To demonstrate the interferometer, measurements up to 220MHz were performed on arrays of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). The measurements provided detailed information e.g. about the frequency response, vibration patterns and array uniformity. Such measurements are highly valuable in the design process of ultrasonic transducers.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.4290) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Nondestructive testing
(120.7280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Vibration analysis

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: May 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 27, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 27, 2013
Published: August 16, 2013

Erlend Leirset, Helge E. Engan, and Astrid Aksnes, "Heterodyne interferometer for absolute amplitude vibration measurements with femtometer sensitivity," Opt. Express 21, 19900-19921 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Knuuttila, P. Tikka, and M. Salomaa, “Scanning Michelson interferometer for imaging surface acoustic wave fields,” Opt. Lett.25, 613–615 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Fattinger and P. Tikka, “Modified Mach-Zender laser interferometer for probing bulk acoustic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 290–292 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. J.-P. Monchalin, “Heterodyne interferometric laser probe to measure continuous ultrasonic displacements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.56, 543–546 (1985). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Martinussen, A. Aksnes, and H. E. Engan, “Wide frequency range measurements of absolute phase and amplitude of vibrations in micro- and nanostructures by optical interferometry,” Opt. Express15, 11370–11384 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kokkonen and M. Kaivola, “Scanning heterodyne laser interferometer for phase-sensitive absolute-amplitude measurements of surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 063502 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Michelson interferometry with 10 pm accuracy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 2669–2676 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Leirset and A. Aksnes, “Optical vibration measurements of cross coupling effects in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80823N (2011) [CrossRef]
  11. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991). [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Whitman and A. Korpel, “Probing of acoustic surface perturbations by coherent light,” Appl. Opt.8, 1567–1576 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996), 3rd ed.
  15. J. W. Nilsson and S. A. Riedel, Electric Circuits (Prentice Hall, 2001), 6th ed.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited