OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 23 — Nov. 18, 2013
  • pp: 28040–28047

Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes

Jonghee Lee, Hyunsu Cho, Tae-Wook Koh, Changhun Yun, Simone Hofmann, Jae-Hyun Lee, Yong Hyun Kim, Björn Lüssem, Jeong-Ik Lee, Karl Leo, Malte C. Gather, and Seunghyup Yoo  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 23, pp. 28040-28047 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1188 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report on the characteristics of enhanced and balanced white-light emission from bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes (BiOLEDs) enabled by the introduction of micro-cavity effects. The insertion of an additional metal layer between the indium tin oxide anode and the hole transporting layer results in similar light output of our BiOLEDs in both top and bottom direction and in reduced distortion of the electroluminescence spectrum. Furthermore, we find that by utilizing MC effects, the overall current efficiency can be improved by 26.2% compared to that of a conventional device.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: September 27, 2013
Revised Manuscript: October 28, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 29, 2013
Published: November 7, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Jonghee Lee, Hyunsu Cho, Tae-Wook Koh, Changhun Yun, Simone Hofmann, Jae-Hyun Lee, Yong Hyun Kim, Björn Lüssem, Jeong-Ik Lee, Karl Leo, Malte C. Gather, and Seunghyup Yoo, "Enhanced and balanced efficiency of white bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 21, 28040-28047 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature459(7244), 234–238 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(2), 233–248 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5227–5239 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. W. Chang, J.-H. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(20), 204502 (2013). [CrossRef]
  5. K. S. Yook, S. O. Jeon, C. W. Joo, and J. Y. Lee, “Transparent organic light emitting diodes using a multilayer oxide as a low resistance transparent cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 013301 (2008).
  6. H. Cho, J.-M. Choi, and S. Yoo, “Highly transparent organic light-emitting diodes with a metallic top electrode: the dual role of a Cs2CO3 layer,” Opt. Express19(2), 1113–1121 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. Jang, and J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem.22(30), 15262–15266 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layer,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Influence of organic capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1443–1445 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Increased and balanced light emission of transparent organic light-emitting diodes by enhanced microcavity effects,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2931–2933 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes by strong micro-cavity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(7), 073303 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Lee, J. -I. Lee, J. -W. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Interlayer engineering with different host material properties in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes” ETRI. J. 32, 32-38 (2011).
  13. J.-I. Lee, J. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, and H. Y. Chu, “Dependence of light-emitting characteristics of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on electron injection and transport materials,” ETRI J.34(5), 690–695 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Olthof, W. Tress, R. Meerheim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Photoelectron spectroscopy study of systematically varied doping concentrations in an organic semiconductor layer using a molecular p-dopant,” J. Appl. Phys.106(10), 103711 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(24), 241112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253308 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater.in press., doi:. [CrossRef]
  19. C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(13), 2469–2471 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi A210(1), 44–65 (2013). [CrossRef]
  22. “ENERGY STAR ® Program Requirements for Solid State Lighting Luminaires Eligibility Criteria – Version 1.1” 1–23 (2008).
  23. M. Furno, T. C. Rosenow, M. C. Gather, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Analysis of the external and internal quantum efficiency of multi-emitter, white organic emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 143304 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited