OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 3 — Feb. 11, 2013
  • pp: 3633–3650

Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers

Wei Shi, Xu Wang, Charlie Lin, Han Yun, Yang Liu, Tom Baehr-Jones, Michael Hochberg, Nicolas A. F. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 3, pp. 3633-3650 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.003633


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2515 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate, in both theory and experiment, 4-port, electrically tunable photonic filters using silicon contra-directional couplers (contra-DCs) with uniform and phase-shifted waveguide Bragg gratings. Numerical analysis, including both intra- and inter-waveguide couplings, is performed using coupled-mode theory and the transfer-matrix method. The contra-DC devices were fabricated by a CMOS-photonics manufacturing foundry and are electrically tunable using free-carrier injection. A 4-port, grating-based photonic resonator has been obtained using the phase-shifted contra-DC, showing a resonant peak with a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.2 nm and an extinction ratio of 24 dB. These contra-DC devices enable on-chip integration of Bragg-grating-defined functions without using circulators and have great potential for applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing networks and optical signal processing.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(050.5080) Diffraction and gratings : Phase shift
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 7, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 19, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 22, 2013
Published: February 5, 2013

Citation
Wei Shi, Xu Wang, Charlie Lin, Han Yun, Yang Liu, Tom Baehr-Jones, Michael Hochberg, Nicolas A. F. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski, "Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers," Opt. Express 21, 3633-3650 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-3-3633


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).
  2. X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 290–292 (2011).
  3. I. Giuntoni, D. Stolarek, A. Gajda, J. B. G. Winzer, B. Tillack, K. Petermann, and L. Zimmerman, “Integrated drop-filter for dispersion compensation based on SOI rib waveguides,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (San Diego, CA, 2010), paper OThJ5.
  4. A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express16, 4413–4419 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, M. Kulishov, D. V. Plant, and J. Azaña, “Temporal differentiation of optical signals using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express15, 371–377 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, A. S. S, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proceedings of SPIE8236, 823620 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. T. E. Murphy, J. T. Hastings, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication and characterization of narrow-band Bragg-reflection filters in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech.19, 1938–1942 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. X. Wang, W. Shi, H. Yun, S. Grist, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band waveguide Bragg gratings on SOI wafers with CMOS-compatible fabrication process,” Opt. Express20, 15547–15558 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. D. Simard, N. Ayotte, Y. Painchaud, S. Bédard, and S. LaRochelle, “Impact of sidewall roughness on integrated Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 3693–3704 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.34, 1357–1359 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-band transmission filter using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Conference (Arlington, VA, 2011), paper ThZ1.
  12. V. Veerasubramanian, G. Beaudin, A. Giguère, B. L. Drogoff, V. Aimez, and A. G. Kirk, “Waveguide-coupled drop filters on SOI using quarter-wave shifted sidewalled grating resonators,” Opt. Express20, 15983–15990 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Yeh and H. F. Taylor, “Contradirectional frequency-selective couplers for guided-wave optics,” Appl. Opt.19, 2848–2855 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-P. Weber, “Spectral characteristics of coupled-waveguide Bragg-reflection tunable optical filter,” Optoelectronics, IEEE Proceedings J140, 275–284 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Hong and W. Huang, “Coupled-waveguide exchange-Bragg resonator filters: Coupled-mode analysis with loss and gain,” J. Lightwave Tech.11, 226–233 (1993). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Riziotis and M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” J. Lightwave Tech.19, 92–104 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Qiu, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, S. Anand, B. Jaskorzynska, and A. Karlsson, “Photonic crystal optical filter based on contra-directional waveguide coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 5121–5124 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 141109 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Contradirectional couplers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 3999–4001 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Shi, X. Wang, H. Yun, W. Zhang, L. Chrowtowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Add-drop filters in silicon grating-assisted asymmetric couplers,” OFC/NFOEC (2012) paper OTh3D.3.
  21. D. T. H. Tan, P. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun.1, 116 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. C. K. Raj, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express19, 2401–2409 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, C. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Grating-coupled silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 121118 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. W. Shi, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, C. Lin, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Single-band add-drop filters using anti-reflection, contradirectional couplers,” IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (San Diego, CA, USA2012), paper WA7. [CrossRef]
  25. W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Electrically tunable resonant filters in phase-shifted contra-directional couplers,” IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (San Diego, CA, USA2012), paper WP2. [CrossRef]
  26. “ http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/device/ ,” Lumerical Solutions Device (Retrieved on Sep. 20, 2012).
  27. “ http://www.lumerical.com/mode/ ,” Lumerical Solutions MODE (Retrieved on June 25, 2012).
  28. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electonics in Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, 2007), 6th ed.
  29. “ http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/ref/expm.html ,” (Retrieved on Jan. 10, 2013).
  30. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14, 483–485 (2002). [CrossRef]
  31. X. Wang, W. Shi, M. Hochberg, K. A. E. Schelew, J. F. Young, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Lithography simulation for the fabrication of silicon photonic devices with deep-ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (San Diego, CA, USA2012), paper ThP17. [CrossRef]
  32. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 25 Gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).
  33. A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. D. Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of17, 597–608 (2011). [CrossRef]
  34. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518 – 526 (2010). [CrossRef]
  35. W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics manufacturing,” Opt. Express18, 23598–23607 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Khan, M. A. Baghban, and S. Fathpour, “Electronically tunable silicon photonic delay lines,” Opt. Express19, 11780–11785 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J.-F. Cliche, Y. Painchaud, C. Latrasse, M.-J. Picard, I. Alexandre, and M. Têtu, “Ultra-narrow Bragg grating for active semiconductor laser linewidth reduction through electrical feedback,” Proc. of BGPP’07, paper BTuE2, Quebec City, Canada (2007).
  38. J. Yao, “A tutorial on microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics Society Newsletter26, 5–12 (2012).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited