OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Mar. 25, 2013
  • pp: 7768–7785

New methods of data calibration for high power-aperture lidar

Sai Guan, Guotao Yang, Qihai Chang, Xuewu Cheng, Yong Yang, Shaohua Gong, and Jihong Wang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 7768-7785 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3581 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



For high power-aperture lidar sounding of wide atmospheric dynamic ranges, as in middle-upper atmospheric probing, photomultiplier tubes’ (PMT) pulse pile-up effects and signal-induced noise (SIN) complicates the extraction of information from lidar return signal, especially from metal layers’ fluorescence signal. Pursuit for sophisticated description of metal layers’ characteristics at far range (80~130km) with one PMT of high quantum efficiency (QE) and good SNR, contradicts the requirements for signals of wide linear dynamic range (i.e. from approximate 102 to 108 counts/s). In this article, Substantial improvements on experimental simulation of Lidar signals affected by PMT are reported to evaluate the PMTs’ distortions in our High Power-Aperture Sodium LIDAR system. A new method for pile-up calibration is proposed by taking into account PMT and High Speed Data Acquisition Card as an Integrated Black-Box, as well as a new experimental method for identifying and removing SIN from the raw Lidar signals. Contradiction between the limited linear dynamic range of raw signal (55~80km) and requirements for wider acceptable linearity has been effectively solved, without complicating the current lidar system. Validity of these methods was demonstrated by applying calibrated data to retrieve atmospheric parameters (i.e. atmospheric density, temperature and sodium absolutely number density), in comparison with measurements of TIMED satellite and atmosphere model. Good agreements are obtained between results derived from calibrated signal and reference measurements where differences of atmosphere density, temperature are less than 5% in the stratosphere and less than 10K from 30km to mesosphere, respectively. Additionally, approximate 30% changes are shown in sodium concentration at its peak value. By means of the proposed methods to revert the true signal independent of detectors, authors approach a new balance between maintaining the linearity of adequate signal (20-110km) and guaranteeing good SNR (i.e. 104:1 around 90km) without debasing QE, in one single detecting channel. For the first time, PMT in photon-counting mode is independently applied to subtract reliable information of atmospheric parameters with wide acceptable linearity over an altitude range from stratosphere up to lower thermosphere (20-110km).

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: December 17, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 14, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 15, 2013
Published: March 22, 2013

Sai Guan, Guotao Yang, Qihai Chang, Xuewu Cheng, Yong Yang, Shaohua Gong, and Jihong Wang, "New methods of data calibration for high power-aperture lidar," Opt. Express 21, 7768-7785 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. P. Bristow, D. H. Bundy, and A. G. Wright, “Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars,” Appl. Opt.34(21), 4437–4452 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Kaplan and R. J. Daly, “Performance limits and design procedure for all-weather terrestrial range- finders,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.3(11), 428–435 (1967). [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt.32(33), 6742–6753 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Z. Chu, Z. B. Yu, C. S. Gardner, C. Chen, and W. C. Fong, “Lidar observations of neutral Fe layers and fast gravity waves in the thermosphere (110–155 km) at McMurdo (77.8 S, 166.7 E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett.38(23), L23807 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Alpers, R. Eixmann, C. Fricke-Begemann, M. Gerding, and J. Höffner, “Temperature lidar measurements from 1 to 105 km altitude using resonance, Rayleigh, and Rotational Raman scattering,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.4(3), 793–800 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Water, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, and J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res.101(D6), 10287–10297 (1996).
  7. H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and N. Takeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt.24(5), 617–626 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Likura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, and H. Shimzu, “Improvement on lidar data processing for stratospheric aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt.26(24), 5299–5306 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3274–3280 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. W. H. Hunt and S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS22(1), 116–120 (1975). [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Sunesson, A. Apituley, and D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt.33(30), 7045–7058 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, and C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt.29(22), 3303–3315 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE-2 satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.95, 10037–10042 (1990). [CrossRef]
  14. M. H. Proffitt and A. O. Langford, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day or night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere,” Appl. Opt.36(12), 2568–2585 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Wang, “New Chains of Space Weather Monitoring Stations in China,” Space Weather8(8), S08001 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. M. De Vincenzi, G. Penso, A. Sciubba, and A. Sposito, “Experimental study of nonlinear effects on photomultiplier gain,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res.225(1), 104–112 (1984). [CrossRef]
  17. J. P. Boutot, J. Nussli, and D. Vallat, “Recent trends in photomultipliers for nuclear physics,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys.60, 223–305 (1983). [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Chanin and A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar studies of temperature and density using Rayleigh scattering,” in Handbook for MAP: Ground-Based Techniques, Vol. 13 of the Middle Atmosphere Program Series (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics, International Council of Scientific Unions, Urbana, Ill., 1984), paper 7.
  19. R. J. Sica, S. Sargoytchev, P. S. Argall, E. F. Borra, L. Girard, C. T. Sparrow, and S. Flatt, “Lidar measurements taken with a large-aperture liquid mirror. 1. Rayleigh-scatter system,” Appl. Opt.34(30), 6925–6936 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. S. Gardner, “Sodium resonance fluorescence lidar applications in atmospheric science and astronomy,” Proc. IEEE77(3), 408–418 (1989). [CrossRef]
  21. C. S. Gardner, “Performance capabilities of middle-atmosphere temperature lidars: Comparison of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Ca+, and Rayleigh systems,” Appl. Opt.43(25), 4941–4956 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited