OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 21, Iss. S1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: A190–A200

Dependence of efficiencies in GaN-based vertical blue light-emitting diodes on the thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer

Han-Youl Ryu, Ki-Seong Jeon, Min-Goo Kang, Yunho Choi, and Jeong-Soo Lee  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue S1, pp. A190-A200 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.00A190


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (861 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We investigate the dependence of various efficiencies in GaN-based vertical blue light-emitting diode (LED) structures on the thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer by using numerical simulations. The electrical efficiency (EE) and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are found to increase as the thickness or doping concentration increases due to the improvement of current spreading. On the contrary, the light extraction efficiency (LEE) decreases with increasing doping concentration or n-GaN thickness by the free-carrier absorption. By combining the results of EE, IQE, and LEE, wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of the vertical LED is calculated, and the optimum thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer is found for obtaining the maximum WPE.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

ToC Category:
Light-Emitting Diodes

History
Original Manuscript: October 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 22, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 12, 2012
Published: January 8, 2013

Citation
Han-Youl Ryu, Ki-Seong Jeon, Min-Goo Kang, Yunho Choi, and Jeong-Soo Lee, "Dependence of efficiencies in GaN-based vertical blue light-emitting diodes on the thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer," Opt. Express 21, A190-A200 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-S1-A190


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A205(5), 1086–1092 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1028–1040 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 79–87 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(10), 1360–1362 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(2), 023510 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, Y. H. Song, H. K. Lee, J. W. Choi, and J. L. Lee, “Enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN LEDs by improved current spreading,” Opt. Express20(S2Suppl 2), A287–A292 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-102-A287 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, and H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1358–1360 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251110 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Y. Ryu and J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express19(4), 2886–2894 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-2886 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. APSYS by Crosslight Software, Inc., Burnaby, Canada, http://www.crosslight.com
  17. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8654 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Y. Ryu and J. I. Shim, “Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal InGaN vertical light-emitting diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 714–720 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A765–A776 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-105-A765 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A207(10), 2217–2225 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1180–1196 (2010). [CrossRef]
  25. J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B98(4), 779–789 (2010). [CrossRef]
  26. A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 103504 (2010). [CrossRef]
  27. H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, and E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(24), 1866–1868 (2011). [CrossRef]
  28. H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131109 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 161107 (2011). [CrossRef]
  30. F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(1), 011111 (2012). [CrossRef]
  31. B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131111 (2012). [CrossRef]
  32. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002). [CrossRef]
  33. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House Inc., 1995).
  34. S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H. G. Park, and Y. H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008). [CrossRef]
  35. D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, and S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1257–1263 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express18(9), 9398–9412 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-9398 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), chap. 9.
  38. O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, and M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun.97(5), 365–370 (1996). [CrossRef]
  39. G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B50(1-3), 142–147 (1997). [CrossRef]
  40. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997). [CrossRef]
  41. G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(24), 3209–3211 (1997). [CrossRef]
  42. Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, and T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 103509 (2005). [CrossRef]
  43. H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, and I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.102(2), 026103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  44. Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, and Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors42(11), 1342–1345 (2008). [CrossRef]
  45. H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(5), 711–713 (1999). [CrossRef]
  46. M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, and P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(3), 535–542 (2001). [CrossRef]
  47. J. Piprek, Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Academic Press, 2003), chap. 9.
  48. X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171113 (2008). [CrossRef]
  49. J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008). [CrossRef]
  50. D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251115 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited