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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4006–4020

Long-range surface plasmon triple-output Mach-Zehnder interferometers

Hui Fan, Robert Charbonneau, and Pierre Berini  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4006-4020 (2014)

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A triple-output Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) operating with long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves, consisting of a MZI in cascade with a triple coupler, is demonstrated at a wavelength of ~1370 nm, using the thermo-optic effect to produce phase shifting. A theoretical model for three-waveguide coupling is also proposed and was applied to compute the transfer characteristic of various designs. Dimensions for the device were selected to optimize performance, experiments were performed, and the results were compared to theory. The outputs were sinusoidally related to the thermally-induced phase shift and separated by ~2π/3 rad, as expected theoretically. Four detection schemes that take advantage of the 3 times larger dynamic range and suppress time-varying common perturbations are proposed and analyzed in order to improve the detection limit of the device. A minimum detectable phase shift ~2/3 that of a single output was obtained from a power difference scheme and a normalization scheme. The smallest minimum detectable phase shift was 7.3 mrad. The device is promising for sensing applications, including (bio)chemical sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 15, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 3, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 3, 2014
Published: February 13, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Hui Fan, Robert Charbonneau, and Pierre Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon triple-output Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Express 22, 4006-4020 (2014)

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