OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4161–4167

Recording oscillations of sub-micron size cantilevers by extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography

Nils C. Monserud, Erik B. Malm, Przemyslaw W. Wachulak, Vakhtang Putkaradze, Ganesh Balakrishnan, Weilun Chao, Erik Anderson, David Carlton, and Mario C. Marconi  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4161-4167 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (862 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We recorded the fast oscillation of sub-micron cantilevers using time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Fourier transform holography. A tabletop capillary discharge EUV laser with a wavelength of 46.9 nm provided a large flux of coherent illumination that was split using a Fresnel zone plate to generate the object and the reference beams. The reference wave was produced by the first order focus while a central opening in the zone plate provided a direct illumination of the cantilevers. Single-shot holograms allowed for the composition of a movie featuring the fast oscillation. Three-dimensional displacements of the object were determined as well by numerical back-propagation, or “refocusing” of the electromagnetic fields during the reconstruction of a single hologram.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.7440) Imaging systems : X-ray imaging
(180.7460) Microscopy : X-ray microscopy
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging
(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: January 8, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 10, 2014
Published: February 14, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Nils C. Monserud, Erik B. Malm, Przemyslaw W. Wachulak, Vakhtang Putkaradze, Ganesh Balakrishnan, Weilun Chao, Erik Anderson, David Carlton, and Mario C. Marconi, "Recording oscillations of sub-micron size cantilevers by extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography," Opt. Express 22, 4161-4167 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. A. Brewer, F. Brizuela, P. Wachulak, D. H. Martz, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, A. V. Vinogradov, I. A. Artyukov, A. G. Ponomareko, V. V. Kondratenko, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, “Single-shot extreme ultraviolet laser imaging of nanostructures with wavelength resolution,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 518–520 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Carbajo, I. D. Howlett, F. Brizuela, K. S. Buchanan, M. C. Marconi, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, “Sequential single-shot imaging of nanoscale dynamic interactions with a table-top soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2994–2996 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. W. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, R. A. Bartels, C. S. Menoni, J. J. Rocca, “Soft x-ray laser holography with wavelength resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(11), 1811–1814 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. P. W. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, R. A. Bartels, C. S. Menoni, J. J. Rocca, “Volume extreme ultraviolet nano-holographic imaging with numerical optical sectioning,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10622–10628 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Murnane, J. W. Miao, “OPTICS: Ultrafast X-ray photography,” Nature 460(7259), 1088–1090 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. G. Song, J. W. Miao, Y. W. Liu, F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(4), 248–261 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Guehrs, A. M. Stadler, S. Flewett, S. Frommel, J. Geilhufe, B. Pfau, T. Rander, S. Schaffert, G. Buldt, S. Eisebitt, “Soft x-ray tomoholography,” New J. Phys. 14(1), 013022 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Miao, C. C. Chen, C. Y. Song, Y. Nishino, Y. Kohmura, T. Ishikawa, D. Ramunno-Johnson, T. K. Lee, S. H. Risbud, “Three-dimensional GaN-Ga2O3 core shell structure revealed by X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21), 215503 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Peterson, B. Abbey, C. T. Putkunz, D. J. Vine, G. A. van Riessen, G. A. Cadenazzi, E. Balaur, R. Ryan, H. M. Quiney, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “Nanoscale Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging tomography using ptychography,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24678–24685 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. D. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. C. Du, J. W. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature 463(7278), 214–217 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, H. Zacharias, O. Kutz, I. Rudolph, D. Schondelmaier, R. Treusch, S. Eisebitt, “Sequential femtosecond X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 99–102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. B. Pfau, C. M. Gunther, S. Schaffert, R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, H. Zacharias, O. Kutz, I. Rudolph, R. Treusch, S. Eisebitt, “Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view,” New J. Phys. 12(9), 095006 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Guizar-Sicairos, J. R. Fienup, “Holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17592–17612 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. G. Podorov, K. M. Pavlov, D. M. Paganin, “A non-iterative reconstruction method for direct and unambiguous coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9954–9962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells, D. P. Kern, “High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-Ray Holography,” Science 256(5059), 1009–1012 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. B. Malm, N. C. Monserud, C. G. Brown, P. W. Wachulak, H. W. Xu, G. Balakrishnan, W. L. Chao, E. Anderson, M. C. Marconi, “Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9959–9966 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2005).
  20. C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft-x-ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24(16), 1115–1117 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Urbanski, M. C. Marconi, L. M. Meng, M. Berrill, O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, J. J. Rocca, “Spectral linewidth of a Ne-like Ar capillary discharge soft-x-ray laser and its dependence on amplification beyond gain saturation,” Phys. Rev. A 85(3), 033837 (2012). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, D. T. Attwood, “Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 63(3), 033802 (2001). [CrossRef]
  23. D. Brake, H. W. Xu, A. Hollowell, G. Balakrishnan, C. Hains, M. Marconi, V. Putkaradze, “Intrinsic localized modes in two-dimensional vibrations of crystalline pillars and their application for sensing,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 104326 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Brake, V. Putkaradze, “Simplified models for Intrinsic Localized Mode dynamics,” in Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications (2012)
  25. A. J. Sievers, S. Takeno, “Intrinsic Localized Modes in Anharmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(8), 970–973 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Sato, B. E. Hubbard, A. J. Sievers, “Colloquium: Nonlinear energy localization and its manipulation in micromechanical oscillator arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(1), 137–157 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MP4 (594 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited