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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 10, Iss. 12 — Jun. 17, 2002
  • pp: 505–514

Wavelength-agile diode-laser sensing strategies for monitoring gas properties in optically harsh flows: application in cesium-seeded pulse detonation engine

Scott T. Sanders, Daniel W. Mattison, Lin Ma, Jay B. Jeffries, and Ronald K. Hanson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 12, pp. 505-514 (2002)

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The rapid, broad wavelength scanning capabilities of advanced diode lasers allow extension of traditional diode-laser absorption techniques to high pressure, transient, and generally hostile environments. Here, we demonstrate this extension by applying a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to monitor gas temperature and pressure in a pulse detonation engine (PDE). Using aggressive injection current modulation, the VCSEL is scanned through a 10 cm-1 spectral window at megahertz rates – roughly 10 times the scanning range and 1000 times the scanning rate of a conventional diode laser. The VCSEL probes absorption lineshapes of the ~ 852 nm D2 transition of atomic Cs, seeded at ~ 5 ppm into the feedstock gases of a PDE. Using these lineshapes, detonated-gas temperature and pressure histories, spanning 2000 – 4000 K and 0.5 – 30 atm, respectively, are recorded with microsecond time response. The increasing availability of wavelength-agile diode lasers should support the development of similar sensors for other harsh flows, using other absorbers such as native H2O.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
(300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission
(300.6210) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, atomic
(300.6260) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, diode lasers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: May 3, 2002
Revised Manuscript: June 13, 2002
Published: June 17, 2002

Scott Sanders, Daniel Mattison, Lin Ma, Jay Jeffries, and Ronald Hanson, "Wavelength-agile diode-laser sensing strategies for monitoring gas properties in optically harsh flows: application in cesium-seeded pulse detonation," Opt. Express 10, 505-514 (2002)

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  1. J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, �??Oxygen measurements at high pressures using vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. B. 72, 127-135 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, �??Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 4405-4415 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. S. T. Sanders, D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, �??Rapid temperature-tuning of a 1.4 m diode laser with application to high pressure H2O absorption spectroscopy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1568-1570 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. S. T. Sanders, �??Diode-laser sensors for harsh environments with application to pulse detonation engines,�?? Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (2001), <a href="http://vonkarman.stanford.edu/tsd/TSD-142.pdf">http://vonkarman.stanford.edu/tsd/TSD-142.pdf</a>
  5. E. Schlosser, T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, �??In-situ detection of potassium atoms in hightemperature coal-combustion systems using near-infrared-diode lasers,�?? Spectrochimica Acta, 2002, (in press).
  6. Z. J. Jabbour, J. Sagle, R. K. Namiotka, and J. Huennekens, �??Measurement of the self-broadening rate coefficients of the cesium resonance lines,�?? J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 767-778 (1995) [CrossRef]
  7. C. Affolderbach, A. Nagel, S. Knappe, C. Jung, D. Wiedenmann, and R. Wynands, �??Nonlinear spectroscopy with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL),�?? Appl. Phys. B. 70, 407-413 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Groll and K. Niemax, �??Multielement diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry in graphite tube furnaces and analytical flames,�?? Spectrochimica Acta 48B, 633-641 (1993).
  9. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, �??Tunable VCSEL,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Coldren, �??Monolithic Tunable Diode Lasers,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 988-999 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Bussing and G. Pappas, �??An introduction to pulse detonation engines,�?? paper 0263 at the 32nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV (1994).
  12. J. E. Shepherd, F. Pintgen, J. M. Austin, and C. A. Eckett, �??The structure of the detonation front in gases,�?? paper 0773 at the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno NV, 14-17 January (2002).
  13. S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, andR. K. Hanson, �??Diode-Laser Sensor for Monitoring Multiple Combustion Parameters in Pulse Detonation Engines,�?? Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. S. T. Sanders, D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, �??Time-of-flight diode-laser velocimeter using a locally seeded atomic absorber: application in a pulse detonation engine,�?? (submitted to Shock Waves).
  15. B. N. Littleton, A. I. Bishop, T. J. McIntyre, P. F. Barker, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, �??Flow tagging velocimetry in a superorbital expansion tube,�?? ShockWaves 10, 225-228 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. S. D. Wehe, �??Development of a tunable diode laser probe for measurements in hypervelocity flows,�?? Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (2000), <a href="http://vonkarman.stanford.edu/tsd/WeheThesis.pdf">http://vonkarman.stanford.edu/tsd/WeheThesis.pdf</a>
  17. S. T. Sanders, D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, �??Sensors for high-pressure, harsh combustion environments using wavlength-agile diode lasers,�?? Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, (in press, 2002). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Teulet, J. P. Sarrette, and A. M. Gomes, �??Collisional-radiative modeling of one- and two-temperature air and air-sodium plasmas at atmospheric pressure with temperatures of 2000-12000K,�?? J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 159-187 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. I. Glassman, Combustion, (Academic Press, 1996), Chap. 5.
  20. L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, �??Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,�?? Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, in press (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. S. T. Sanders, T. P. Jenkins, and R. K. Hanson, �??Diode laser sensor system for multi-parameter measurements in pulse detonation engine flows,�?? paper #3592 at the 36th Joint Propulsion Conference, July 16-19, Huntsville, AL, (2000).
  22. K. Kailasanath and G. Patnaik, �??Performance estimates of pulsed detonation engines,�?? Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 595-601 (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. A. P. Nefedov, V. A. Sinel�??shchikov, and A. D. Usachev, �??Collisional broadening of the Na-D lines by molecular gases,�?? Physica Scripta 59, 432-442 (1999). [CrossRef]

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