OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 10, Iss. 18 — Sep. 9, 2002
  • pp: 909–919

Simulation of the passive infrared spectral signatures of bioaerosol and natural fog clouds immersed in the background atmosphere

D.A. Ligon, A.E. Wetmore, and P.S. Gillespie  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 18, pp. 909-919 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (531 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



At first glance, an examination of the bulk refractive indices for the 8–12 μm waveband of various bioaerosols suggests differentiation with respect to common background aerosols based upon the spectral characteristics of the absorption. The question of whether there is a spectral signature of bioaerosol clouds when those clouds are immersed in a typical atmosphere, including the boundary layer background aerosols, has been addressed in a simulation using the Weather and Atmospheric Visualization Effects for Simulation (WAVES) suite of codes. Using measured values of the refractive index for common bacterial spores, and their typical size distributions, the single-scattering, ensemble-averaged optical properties such as extinction/absorption coefficients, albedo, and the scattering phase function was computed for bioaerosol clouds at a resolution of 1 cm-1. WAVES was then used to calculate the radiative transfer for a finite sized cloud immersed in background. Results of this simulation indicate that, for a passive remote sensing measurement, it is unlikely that bioaerosol clouds can be identified from the spectral signature alone.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1110) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosols
(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
(280.1100) Remote sensing and sensors : Aerosol detection
(280.1310) Remote sensing and sensors : Atmospheric scattering
(290.1090) Scattering : Aerosol and cloud effects

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: July 5, 2002
Revised Manuscript: August 9, 2002
Published: September 9, 2002

D. Ligon, A. Wetmore, and P. Gillespie, "Simulation of the passive infrared spectral signatures of bioaerosol and natural fog clouds immersed in the background atmosphere," Opt. Express 10, 909-919 (2002)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D.F. Flanigan, ???Hazardous Cloud Imaging: a new way of using the passive infrared,??? Appl. Opt. 36, 7027???7036 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. D.F. Flanigan, ???Hazardous Cloud Imaging: An In-Depth Study, ??? ERDEC-TR-416 (Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Cameron Station, VA., 1997).
  3. D.F. Flanigan, ???Prediction of the limits of detection of hazardous vapors by passive infrared with the use of MODTRAN, ??? Appl. Opt. 35, 6090???6098 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. F. Flanigan, ???Vapor-detection sensitivity as a function of spectral resolution for a single lorentzian band, ??? Appl. Opt. 34, 2636???2639 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M.L.G. Althouse and C. Chang, ???Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager,??? Opt. Eng. 30, 1725???1733 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Carr, L. Fletcher, P. Holland, J. Leonelli, D. McPherrin, M. Althouse, ???Characterization of filtered FLIR systems designed for chemical vapor detection and mapping,??? in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing, G.C.Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE Vol. 1309, 90???103 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. S.R. Horman, ???Remote Identi.cation of CWAgents by Spectral Techniques: Calculations of Cloud Emission in the Infrared,??? NSWC???TR???3457, (Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Cameron Station, VA., 1976).
  8. C.M.Gittins, L.G. Piper, W.T. Rawlins, W.J. Marinelli, J.O. Jensen, A.N. Akinyemi, ???Passive and Active Stando. Infrared Detection of Bio-Aerosols,??? Field. Anal. Chem. Tech. 3, 274???282 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Suhre, and E. Villa, ???Imaging spectroradiometer for the 8-12 micron region with a 2 cm-1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter,??? Appl. Opt. 37, 2340???2345 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Segelstein, ???The complex refractive index of water,??? M.S. Thesis, University of Missouri???Kansas City (1981); P. Ray, ???Broadband complex refractive indices of ice and water,??? Appl. Opt. 11, 1836-1844 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. private communication, for optical constants in the visible to short wave IR see P.S. Tuminello, E.T. Arakawa, B.N. Khare, J.M. Wrobel, M.R.Querry, and M.E. Milham, ???Optical properties of Bacillus subtilis spores from 0.2 to 2.5 microns,??? Appl. Opt. 36, 2818???2824 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Yabushita, and K. Wada, ???The Infrared and Ultraviolet Absorptions of Micro-Organisms and their relation to the Hoyle-Wickamasinghe Hypothesis,??? Astrophys. Space Sci. 110, 405-411 (1985). [CrossRef]
  13. R.W. Fenn. E.P Shettle, and W.S. Hering, et.al., ???Atmospheric optical properties and meteorological conditions,??? Atmos. Environ. 15, 1911???1918 (1981) [CrossRef]
  14. E.P Shettle, and R.W. Fenn, ???Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,??? AFGL-TR-79-0214, (Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Cameron Station, VA., 1979).
  15. K.P Gurton, D.A. Ligon, and R. Kvavilashvili, ???Measured infrared spectral extinction for aerosolized Bacillus subtilis var. niger endospores from 3 to 13 µm,??? Appl. Opt. 40, 4443???4448 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. D.A. Ligon, T.W. Chen, J.B. Gillespie,???Determination of aerosol parameters from light-scattering data using an inverse Monte Carlo technique,??? Appl. Opt. 35, 4297-4303 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P.S. Gillespie, A.E. Wetmore, D.A. Ligon, ???Weather and Atmospheric Effects for Simulation: WAVES98 Suite Overview,??? ARL-TR-1721-1, (Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Cameron Station, VA., 1998).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited