OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 10, Iss. 9 — May. 6, 2002
  • pp: 413–418

Investigation of hybrid microlens integration with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for free-space optical links

Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 9, pp. 413-418 (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.10.000413


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (183 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In a novel one-step process, a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL, operation wavelength of 980 nm) is integrated with a hybrid microdiffractive lens by focused ion beam milling (FIBM) for use in free-space optical links. A hybrid microlens with a diameter of 100 μm, numerical aperture of 0.56, and sag height of 4.196 μm, combined with a diffractive lens with continuous relief and 6 annuli, was designed and fabricated in one step by FIBM on the back of a VCSEL with a GaAs substrate for beam collimation. A previous VCSEL integrated with a pure diffractive lens had a half-divergence angle of 0.6°; the half-divergence angle of the VCSEL with the hybrid microlens was improved to 0.3°. Test results show that athermalization with respect to the variation in operating temperature can be realized with the hybrid microlens.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: March 28, 2002
Revised Manuscript: April 25, 2002
Published: May 6, 2002

Citation
Fu Qi and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, "Investigation of hybrid microlens integration with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for free-space optical links," Opt. Express 10, 413-418 (2002)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-413


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, �??Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, �??Investigation of micro-diffractive lens with continuous relief with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using focused ion beam direct milling,�?? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 424�??426 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. Chunjie Rui Pu and Carl W. Wilmsen, �??Hybrid integration of VCSEL�??s to CMOS integrated circuits,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. l.5, 201�??207 (1999).
  4. Michael Lebby, Craig A. Gaw, Wenbin Jiang, P. A. Kiely, Chan Long Shieh, P. R. Claisse, Jamal Ramdani, Davis H. Hartman, Daniel B. Schwartz, and Jerry Grula, �??Characteristics of VCSEL array for parallel optical interconnects,�?? in 1996 Proceedings: 46th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 279�??291. [CrossRef]
  5. Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, �??Hybrid micro-diffractive�??refractive optical element with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for single-mode coupling,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 5872�??5876 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Hans Peter Herzig, Micro-optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  7. Hironori Sasaki, Kyoko Kotani, Hiroshi Wada, Takeshi Takamori, and Takashi Ushikubo, �??Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 1843�??1855 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. Eva M. Strzelecka, Duane A. Louderback, Brian J. Thibeault, Geoff B. Thompson, Kent Bertilsson, and Larry A. Coldren, �??Parallel free-space optical interconnect based on arrays of vertical-cavity lasers and detectors with monolithic microlenses,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 2811�??2821 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. Th. Ammer, M. Rossi, M. T. Gale, Ch. Zschokke, S. Westenhofer, H. P. Gauhhel, �??On-chip Ormocer microlens replication for VCSEL to fiber coupling,�?? in Proceedings, Applied Optics and Opto-Electronics Conference 2000 (Institute of Physics, London, 2000), pp. 76�??83.
  10. M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and H. P. Herzig, �??Refractive and difrractive properties of planar micro-optical elements,�?? Appl. Opt. 34, 5996�??6006 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1. Fig.2. Fig.3
 
Fig.4. Fig.5.
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited