OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 19 — Sep. 22, 2003
  • pp: 2278–2288

Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy

Enzo Di Fabrizio, Dan Cojoc, Stefano Cabrini, Burkhard Kaulich, Jean Susini, Paolo Facci, and Thomas Wilhein  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 19, pp. 2278-2288 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (860 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper we introduce phase diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that beside simple focusing, can perform new optical functions in the range of x-rays. In particular, the intensity of the wavefront can be distributed with almost complete freedom. We calculated and fabricated high resolution DOEs that can focus a monochromatic x-ray beam into multiple spots displaced in a single or two planes along the optical axis or can shape the beam into a desired continuous geometrical pattern. The possibility to introduce a specified phase shift between the generated spots, which can increase the image contrast, is demonstrated by preliminary results obtained from computer simulations and experiments performed in visible light. The functionality of the DOEs has been tested successfully in full-field differential interference contrast (DIC) x-ray microscopy at the ID21 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) operated at 4 keV photon energy.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(090.1970) Holography : Diffractive optics
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(180.7460) Microscopy : X-ray microscopy
(340.7460) X-ray optics : X-ray microscopy

ToC Category:
Focus Issue: Coherent x-ray optics

Original Manuscript: August 4, 2003
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2003
Published: September 22, 2003

Enzo Di Fabrizio, Dan Cojoc, Stefano Cabrini, Burkhard Kaulich, Jean Susini, Paolo Facci, and Thomas Wilhein, "Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 2278-2288 (2003)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Attwood, Soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation; principles and applications, (Cambridge University Press, 1999). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Schneider, �??Cryo X-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,�?? Ultramicroscopy 75, 85-104 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, �??Phase-contrast X-ray microscopy studies,�?? Optik 97, 181-182 (1994).
  4. A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X-rays, (Plenum Press, New York, 1986). [CrossRef]
  5. E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrertt, �??High efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,�?? Nature 40, 895-898 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Normarski, and A.R. Weill, �??Application à la métallographie des methods interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées ,�?? Rev. Metall. 2, 121-128 (1955).
  7. F. Zernike, �??Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,�?? Physica 9, 686-698, (1942). [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. McMahon, E.D. Barone-Nugent, B.E. Allman, and K.A. Nugent, �??Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy II: differential interference contrast imaging for biological TEM,�?? J. of Microscopy 206, 204-208 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Preza, D.L. Snyder, J.A. Conchello, �??Theoretical development and experimental evaluation of imaging models for differential-interference-contrast microscopy,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 2185-2199 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, �??Differential interference contrast X-ray microscopy with submicron resolution,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082-2084 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Altissimo, S. Cabrini, B. Fayard, and J. Susini, �??Differential interference contrast X-ray microscopy with twin zone plates,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 797-806 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Bernhardt, F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, �??Iterative techniques to integrate different optical functions in a diffractive phase element,�?? Appl. Opt. 30, 4629 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Jacobsen, M. R. Howells, �??A technique for projection x-ray lithography using computer-generated holograms,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2993-3001 (1992). [CrossRef]
  14. A.A Firsov, A.A. Svintsov, S.I. Zaitsev, A. Erko, A, V.V. Aristov, �??The first synthetic X-ray hologram: results,�?? Opt. Commun 202, 55-59 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, �??Novel diffractive optics for x-ray beam shaping,�?? SPIE Proc. 4783, 105-114 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Cojoc, E Di Fabrizio, L. Businaro, S.Cabrini, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, M. Altissimo, �??Design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements for optical tweezer arrays by means of e-beam lithography,�?? Microelectronic Eng. 61-62, 963-969 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. Applied Optics Research, �??GLAD 4.5 Theoretical Description,�?? 4.1-5.15 (AOR 1997).
  18. J. Susini, R. Barret, B. Kaulich, S. Oestreich, and M. Salomé, �??The X-ray microscopy facility at the ESRF: A status report,�?? AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 19-26 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Facci, D. Alliata, L. Andolfi, B. Schnyder, R. Koetz, "Formation and characterization of protein monolayers on oxygen-exposing surfaces by multiple-step self-chemisorption," Surf. Sci. 504C, 282-292 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, and J. Susini, �??Design and fabrication of new optics for X-ray microscopy and material science,�?? J. Phys. IV France 104, 177-183 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited