OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 21 — Oct. 20, 2003
  • pp: 2747–2752

Focusing of doughnut laser beams by a high numerical-aperture objective in free space

Djenan Ganic, Xiaosong Gan, and Min Gu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 21, pp. 2747-2752 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.002747


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (415 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report on, in this letter, a phenomenon that the central zero-intensity point of a doughnut beam, caused by phase singularity, disappears in the focus, when such a beam is focused by a high numerical-aperture objective in free space. In addition, the focal shape of the doughnut beam of a given topological charge exhibits the increased ring intensity in the direction orthogonal to the incident polarization state and an elongation in the polarization direction. These phenomena are caused by the effect of depolarization, associated with a high numerical-aperture objective, and become pronounced by the use of a central obstruction in the objective aperture.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: July 31, 2003
Revised Manuscript: October 13, 2003
Published: October 20, 2003

Citation
Djenan Ganic, Xiaosong Gan, and Min Gu, "Focusing of doughnut laser beams by a high numerical-aperture objective in free space," Opt. Express 11, 2747-2752 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-21-2747


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Ashkin, �??Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,�?? Biophys. J. 61, 569-581 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, �??Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods,�?? Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander Jr., �??Optical vortex trapping of particles,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 827-829 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, �??Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,�?? Science, 296, 1101-1103 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, �??Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,�?? Science 292, 912-914 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, �??Focal spots of size λ/23 open up far-field florescence microscopy at 33 nm axial resolution,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901-1-4 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. McGloin, V. Garcés-Chávez, and K. Dholakia, �??Interfering Bessel beams for optical micromanipulation,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 657-659 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, �??Hellical-wavefront laser beam produced with a spiral phase plate,�?? Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Ganic, X. Gan, and M. Gu, �??Generation of doughnut laser beams by use of a liquid-crystal cell with a conversion efficiency near 100%,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1351-1353 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Pack, �??Diffraction-limited dark laser spot produced by a hollow optical fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 119-121 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. N. R. Heckenberg, R. G. Mcduff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, �??Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,�?? Opt. Lett. 17, 221-223 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Gu, Advanced Optical Imaging Theory (Springer, Heidelberg, 2000).
  13. B. Richards, and E. Wolf, �??Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems, II. Structure of the image in an aplanatic system,�?? Proc. Royal Soc. A. 253 (1959) 358-379. [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. M. Chon, X. Gan, and M. Gu, �??Splitting of the focal spot of a high numerical-aperture objective in free space,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1576-1578 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. H. C. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, �??Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian beams beyond the paraxial approximation,�?? Opt. Commun. 169, 9-16 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Volyar, V. G. Shvedov, and T. A. Fadeeva, �??The structure of a nonparaxial Gaussian beam near the focus: II. Optical vortices,�?? Opt. Spectrosc. 90, 93-100 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited