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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 23 — Nov. 17, 2003
  • pp: 2997–3009

Robust underwater visibility parameter

J. Ronald V. Zaneveld and W. Scott Pegau  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 23, pp. 2997-3009 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.002997


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Abstract

We review theoretical models to show that contrast reduction at a specific wavelength in the horizontal direction depends directly on the beam attenuation coefficient at that wavelength. If a black target is used, the inherent contrast is always negative unity, so that the visibility of a black target in the horizontal direction depends on a single parameter only. That is not the case for any other target or viewing arrangement. We thus propose the horizontal visibility of a black target to be the standard for underwater visibility. We show that the appropriate attenuation coefficient can readily be measured with existing simple instrumentation. Diver visibility depends on the photopic beam attenuation coefficient, which is the attenuation of the natural light spectrum convolved with the spectral responsivity of the human eye (photopic response function). In practice, it is more common to measure the beam attenuation coefficient at one or more wavelength bands. We show that the relationship: visibility is equal to 4.8 divided by the photopic beam attenuation coefficient; originally derived by Davies-Colley [1], is accurate with an average error of less than 10% in a wide variety of coastal and inland waters and for a wide variety of viewing conditions. We also show that the beam attenuation coefficient measured at 532 nm, or attenuation measured by a WET Labs commercial 20 nm FWHM transmissometer with a peak at 528nm are adequate substitutes for the photopic beam attenuation coefficient, with minor adjustments.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(330.1880) Vision, color, and visual optics : Detection

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: October 6, 2003
Revised Manuscript: October 27, 2003
Published: November 17, 2003

Citation
J. Ronald Zaneveld and W. Pegau, "Robust underwater visibility parameter," Opt. Express 11, 2997-3009 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-2997


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References

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  2. R.W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics Vol 1, NOAA,(1976)
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  11. A.H.Barnard, W.S.Pegau, and J.R.V. Zaneveld, �??Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans�??. J.Geophys. Res. 103(C11) 24,955- 24,968 (1998) [CrossRef]
  12. K.J. Voss, �??A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas,�?? Limnol. Oceangr. 37, 501-509 (1992). [CrossRef]
  13. T.E. Bowers, �??Visbility for general viewing direction of objects submerged in vertically inhomogeneous waters,�?? (Ocean Optics Conference 2002).

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