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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 17 — Aug. 23, 2004
  • pp: 3954–3966

Influence of astigmatism on the fabrication of diffractive structures by use of focused ion-beam milling

Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 17, pp. 3954-3966 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.003954


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Abstract

Astigmatism exists in a focused-ion-beam (FIB) system and causes the shape of a beam spot to change from a normal circle to an ellipse. This variation influences the fabrication of diffractive structures by use of programmable controlled milling of a FIB. It is analyzed combined with the fabrication of blazed gratings and Fresnel diffractive lenses. Fabrication errors caused by a beam spot with astigmatism is discussed in detail for four cases of the long axis of an ellipse (a) in accordance with the X axis, (b) in accordance with the Y axis, (c) at 45° with the X axis, and (d) at -45° with the X axis. Finally, a method is given for correction of the astigmatism and how to determine the circularity of the beam spot qualitatively.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: July 2, 2004
Revised Manuscript: August 4, 2004
Published: August 23, 2004

Citation
Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Bryan, "Influence of astigmatism on the fabrication of diffractive structures by use of focused ion-beam milling," Opt. Express 12, 3954-3966 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-3954


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References

  1. Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and O. Shing, �??Diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by focused ion beam for monomode fiber coupling,�?? Opt. Express 7, 141�??147 (2000), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org.">http://www.opticsexpress.org</a> . [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Fu and N. K. A. Bryan, �??Hybrid microdiffractive�??microrefractive lens with a continuous relief fabricated by focused-ion-beam milling for single-mode fiber coupling,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 5872�??5876 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and W. Zhou, �??Self-organized formation of a blazed-grating-like fiber structure on Si(100) induced by focused ion beam scanning,�?? Opt. Express 12, 227�??233 (2004),<a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org">http://www.opticsexpress.org</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Fu, �??Investigation of microdiffractive lens with continuous relief with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using focused ion beam direct milling,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 424�??426 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Fu and N. K. A. Bryan. �??Investigation of diffractive�??refractive microlens array fabricated by focused ion beam technology,�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 511�??516 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Fu, N. K. A. Bryan, and W. Zhou, �??Quasi-direct writing of diffractive structures with a focused ion beam,�?? Opt. Express 12, 1803�??1809 (2004),<a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org">http://www.opticsexpress.org</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Hessler, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and M. T. Gale, �??Analysis and optimization of fabrication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 4069�??4079 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. P. D. Prewett and G. L. R. Mair, eds., Focused Ion Beam from Liquid Metal Ion Sources (Research Studies Press, Baldock, Hertfordshire, UK, 1991).
  9. A. A Tseng, �??Recent developments in micromilling using focused ion beam technology,�?? J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, R15�??R34 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Orloff, ed., Handbook of Charged Particle Optics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 438�??455.

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