OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 21 — Oct. 18, 2004
  • pp: 5191–5197

Tri-heterodyne confocal microscope with axial superresolution and higher SNR

Weiqian Zhao, Jiubin Tan, and Lirong Qiu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 21, pp. 5191-5197 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.005191


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1491 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Based on the characteristic of a confocal microscope (CM) that the offset of a pinhole along an optical axis changes the axial intensity response phase, a novel tri-heterodyne confocal microscope is built up by dividing the CM measurement light path into three paths, and using three sets of focusing lenses, detectors and pinholes placed behind, on and before the focal plane to form three detection systems, thereby achieving the axial superresolution imaging and high Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) through pairwise heterodyne subtraction of three intensity signals with given phases received by the three detection systems and data processing. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the new tri-heterodyne confocal microscope reduces the full width at the half maximum of CM axial response curve by more than 50%, results in the significant improvement of CM anti-interference capability, and enables CM to be more suitable for high accuracy bipolar absolute measurement of 3D microstructures and surface contours.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(120.6660) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, roughness
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: September 8, 2004
Revised Manuscript: October 7, 2004
Published: October 18, 2004

Citation
Weiqian Zhao, Jiubin Tan, and Lirong Qiu, "Tri-heterodyne confocal microscope with axial superresolution and higher SNR," Opt. Express 12, 5191-5197 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5191


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T.Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic press limited, 1990).
  2. J. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Plenum, New York, 1995). [CrossRef]
  3. Min Gu, Principles of three-dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific Publishing Co.Pte.Ltd., Singapore,1996).
  4. A. Diaspro (ed.) Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy. Foundations, Applications and Advances (Wiley, New York, 2001).
  5. C.H.Lee and J.P.Wang,�??Noninterferometric Differential Confocal Microscopy With 2-nm Depth Resolution,�?? Opt. Commun.135,233~237(1997). [CrossRef]
  6. T.Wilson and S.J.Hewlett, �??Superresonlution in confocal scanning microscopy,�?? Opt.Lett. 16, 1062-1064 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Daniel M.de Juana, Jose E.Oti and Vidal F.Canales, �??Design of superresolving continuous phase filters,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 607-609 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Liu Li, Deng Xiao-qang and Wang Gui-ying, �??Phase-only optical pupil filter for improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy,�?? Acta Physica Sinica 50, 48-51(2001).
  9. Tasso R.M.Sales and Michael Morris, �??Fundamental limits of optical superresolution,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 582-584 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C.J. Schwarz, Y. Kuznetsova and S.R.J. Brueck, �??Imaging interferometric microscopy,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1424 �??1426 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Chen and S.R.J Brueck, �??Imaging interferometric lithography: approaching the resolution limits of optics,�?? Opt.Lett. 24, 124�??126 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. Vicente Mico. AIDO and Zeev Zalevsky, �??Single-step superresolution by interferometric imaging,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2589-2596 (2004). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2589">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2589</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M.Martinez-Corral, C.Ibáñez-López and G.Saavedra, Universidad de Valencia, �??Axial gain resolution in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy by shaded-ring filters,�?? Opt. Express 15, 1740-1745 (2003). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1740">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1740</a> [CrossRef]
  14. Haifeng Wang, �??New approach to supperresolution,�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 851-855 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. Andrew I. Whiting, Ayman F.Abouraddy, Bahaa E.A.Saleh and Malvin C. Teich, �??Polarization-assisted transverse and axial optical superresolution,�?? Opt. Express 15, 1714-1723 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited