OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 21 — Oct. 18, 2004
  • pp: 5237–5242

Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints

Raúl Martínez-Cuenca, Genaro Saavedra, Manuel Martínez-Corral, and Bahram Javidi  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 21, pp. 5237-5242 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (480 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



One of the main challenges in integral imaging is to overcome the limited depth of field. Although it is widely assumed that such limitation is mainly imposed by diffraction due to lenslet imaging, we show that the most restricting factor is the pixelated structure of the sensor (CCD). In this context, we demonstrate that by proper reduction of the fill factor of pickup microlenses, the depth of field can be substantially improved with no deterioration of lateral resolution.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.4190) Imaging systems : Multiple imaging
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(350.5730) Other areas of optics : Resolution

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: July 1, 2004
Revised Manuscript: October 8, 2004
Published: October 18, 2004

Raúl Martínez-Cuenca, Genaro Saavedra, Manuel Martínez-Corral, and Bahram Javidi, "Enhanced depth of field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Express 12, 5237-5242 (2004)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001).
  2. B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).
  3. D. H. McMahon and H. J. Caulfield, �??A technique for producing wide-angle holographic displays,�?? Appl. Opt. 9, 91-96 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, �??Image reconstruction using electrooptic holography,�?? Proc. 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172-173.
  5. M. G. Lippmann, �??Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,�?? J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821-825 (1908).
  6. H. E. Ives, �??Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171-176 (1931). [CrossRef]
  7. N. A. Valyus, Stereoscopy (Focal, London, 1966).
  8. T. Okoshi, "Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-shet and projection type three-dimensional displays," Appl. Opt. 10, 2284-2291 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, "3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978). [CrossRef]
  10. N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Motoki, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, �??Present status of three-dimensional television research,�?? Proc. IEEE 83, 1009-1021 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yayuma, "Real time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photgraphy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Erdman and K. J. Gabriel, "High resolution digital photography by use of a scanning microlens array," Appl. Opt. 40, 5592-5599 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 11, 3528-3541 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, �??Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 5805-5812 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Frauel, O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, " Comparison of passive ranging integral imaging and active imaging digital holography for 3D object recognition," Appl. Opt. 43, 452-462 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Improvement of viewing angle in integral imaging by use of moving lenslet arrays with low fill factor," Appl. Opt. 42, 1996-2002 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus by use of real and virtual image fields," Opt. Lett. 28, 1421-1423 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Large depth-of-focus time-multiplexed three-dimensional integral imaging by use of lenslets with nonuniform focal lengths and aperture sizes," Opt. Lett. 28, 1924-1926 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. Jin, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, �??Effects of device resolution on three-dimensional integral imaging,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1345-1347 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, �??Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am A 21, 951-958 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York 1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: GIF (333 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (632 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited