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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 7 — Apr. 5, 2004
  • pp: 1294–1303

Realization of refractive microoptics through grayscale lithographic patterning of photosensitive hybrid glass

Jeremy D. Rogers, Ari H. O. Kärkkäinen, Tomasz Tkaczyk, Juha T. Rantala, and Michael R. Descour  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 7, pp. 1294-1303 (2004)

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Refractive microlenses with more than 50 µm sag are fabricated using grayscale lithography. Mechanical assembly features are made simultaneously alongside the microlenses to facilitate high precision assembly of miniature optical systems. The microlens elements are formed using lithographic patterning of photosensitive hybrid sol-gel glass requiring no etch transfer to the substrate material. Grayscale lithography enables the straightforward patterning of aspheric lenses and arbitrary surfaces within the material depth. Lessons learned in the design of a grayscale photomask are described. Characterization of the fabricated lens elements is reported including lens shape, surface quality, and image quality of a complete assembled imaging system.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: February 17, 2004
Revised Manuscript: March 23, 2004
Published: April 5, 2004

Jeremy Rogers, Ari Kärkkäinen, Tomasz Tkaczyk, Juha Rantala, and Michael Descour, "Realization of refractive microoptics through grayscale lithographic patterning of photosensitive hybrid glass," Opt. Express 12, 1294-1303 (2004)

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