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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 7 — Apr. 5, 2004
  • pp: 1452–1457

Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy

P. Pace, S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. D. Love  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 7, pp. 1452-1457 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.001452


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Abstract

We show a quantitative connection between Refractive Index Profiles (RIP) and measurements made by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Germanium doped fibers were chemically etched in hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) and the wet etching characteristics of germanium were studied using an AFM. The AFM profiles were compared to both a concentration profile of the preform determined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and a RIP of the fiber measured using a commercial profiling instrument, and were found to be in excellent agreement. It is now possible to calculate the RIP of a germanium doped fiber directly from an AFM profile.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties
(290.3030) Scattering : Index measurements

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: March 18, 2004
Revised Manuscript: March 29, 2004
Published: April 5, 2004

Citation
P. Pace, Shane Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts, and J. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Opt. Express 12, 1452-1457 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-7-1452


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References

  1. S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent and M. Bazylenko, �??Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, �??Characterisation of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 12, 1517-1523 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. D.J. Monk, D.S. Soane, R.T. Howe, "A review of the chemical reaction mechanism and kinetics for hydrofluoric acid etching of silicon dioxide for surface micromachining applications," Thin Solid Films, 232, 1-11 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. G.A.C.M. Spierings, "Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions," J. Mater. Sci. 28, 6261-6273 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. D.P. Tsai, Y.L. Chung, "Study of optical fibre structures by atomic force microscopy," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1563-1570 (1996). [CrossRef]

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