OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 14 — Jul. 11, 2005
  • pp: 5331–5337

Rapid fabrication of large-area periodic structures containing well-defined defects by combining holography and mask techniques

Ngoc Diep Lai, Wen Ping Liang, Jian Hung Lin, and Chia Chen Hsu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 14, pp. 5331-5337 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.005331


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (320 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate a promising method to fabricate large-area periodic structures with desired defects by using the combination of multiple-exposure two-beam interference and mask-photolithography techniques. Multiple-exposure of two-beam interference pattern at 325 nm into a positive AZ-4620 (or a negative SU-8) photopolymerizable photoresist is used to form a square and hexagonal two-dimensional periodic structures. Desired defects are introduced in these structures by irradiating the sample with one beam of the same laser through a mask in which the design of defects is patterned. A 1cm×1cm periodic structures with the lattice constant as small as 365nm embedding several kinds of defect, such as waveguide or Mach-Zehnder, was obtained by employing this combination technique. It shows that the proposed combination technique is useful for mass production of photonic crystal optoelectronics devices.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
(310.2790) Thin films : Guided waves

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: June 3, 2005
Revised Manuscript: June 24, 2005
Published: July 11, 2005

Citation
Ngoc Diep Lai, Wen Liang, Jian Lin, and Chia Hsu, "Rapid fabrication of large-area periodic structures containing well-defined defects by combining holography and mask techniques," Opt. Express 13, 5331-5337 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-14-5331


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. Yablonovitch, �??Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. John, �??Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, A. Chutinan, �??Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-Infrared wavelengths,�?? Science 289, 604-606 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. Haus, �??Channel drop filters in photonic crystals,�?? Opt. Express 3, 4-11 (1998), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-1-4">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-1-4</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. P. Pearsall, �??Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. S. -Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,�?? Science 282, 274-276 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, �??Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,�?? Nature 386, 143-149 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, D. Deppe, �??High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, C. Gmachl, �??Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, P. V. Braun, �??Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals,�?? Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. -H. Ye, S. Badilescu, V. -V. Truong, �??Large-scale ordered macroporous SiO2 thin films by a template-directed method,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 616-618 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, J. R. Sambles, �?? The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1662-1664 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, E. Costard, �??Photonic band gaps and holography,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, �??Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,�?? Nature 404, 53-56 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Shoji, S. Kawata, �??Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, �??Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, H. Misawa, �??Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2758-2760 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. -J. Han, S. Yang, �??Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, �??Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Straub, M. Gu, �??Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, �??Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2061-2063 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, C. M. Soukoulis, �??Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,�?? Nature Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. H. B. Sun, V. Mizeikis, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, J. Y. Ye, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, �??Microcavities in polymeric photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1-3 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, Y. Fainman:, �??Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write,�?? Appl. Opt. 42, 5450-5456 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Moormann, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, �??Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystals devices,�?? Microelectron. Engineer. 73-74, 417-422 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Fluck, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, �??Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: Fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography,�?? Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. H. B. Sun, A. Nakamura, K. Kaneko, S. Shoji, S. Kawata, �??Direct laser writing defects in holographic lithography-created photonic lattices,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, 881-883 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. X. Yang, L. Cai, Q. Liu, �??Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures,�?? Appl. Opt. 32, 6894-6900 (2002). [CrossRef]
  29. H. M. Su, Y. C. Zhong, X. Wang, X. G. Zheng, J. F. Xu, H. Z. Wang, �??Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication,�?? Phys. Rev. E 67, 056619 (2003). [CrossRef]
  30. I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I.-C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, �??Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392-3394 (2001). [CrossRef]
  31. L. Prodan, T. G. Euser, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, C. Bostan, R. M. de Ridder, R. Beigang, L. Kuipers, �??Large-area two-dimensional silicon photonic crystals for infrared light fabricated with laser interference lithography,�?? Nanotechnology 15, 639-642 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited