OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 15 — Jul. 25, 2005
  • pp: 5592–5599

Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction

Zhaolin Lu, Shouyuan Shi, Christopher A. Schuetz, Janusz A. Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 15, pp. 5592-5599 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (460 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present the experimental demonstration of imaging by all-angle negative refraction in a 3D photonic crystal flat lens at microwave frequencies. The flat lens is made of a body-centered cubic photonic crystal (PhC) whose dispersion at the third band results in group velocity opposite to phase velocity for electromagnetic waves. We fabricated the photonic crystal following a layer-by-layer process. A microwave imaging system was established based on a vector network analyzer, where two dipoles work as the source and the detector separately. By scanning the volume around the lens with the detector dipole, we captured the image of the dipole source in both amplitude and phase. The image of two incoherent sources separated by 0.44λ showed two resolvable spots, which served to verify sub-wavelength resolution.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: April 15, 2005
Revised Manuscript: May 19, 2005
Published: July 25, 2005

Zhaolin Lu, Shouyuan Shi, Christopjer Schuetz, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V.G. Veselago, �??The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,�?? Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968). [CrossRef]
  2. J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, W.J. Stewart, I. Youngs, �??Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773�??4776 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.B. Pendry, A.J. Holden, D.J. Robbins, W.J. Stewart, �??Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,�?? IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075�??2084 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, �??Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S. Schultz, �??Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,�?? Science 292, 77-79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, �??Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Notomi, �??Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,�?? Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Notomi, �??Negative refraction in photonic crystals,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133-143 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, �??Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096-10099 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. J.B. Pendry, �??Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J.S. Derov, S. Sridhar, �??Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C.M. Soukoulis, �??Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals,�?? Nature 423, 604-605 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P.V. Parimi, W.T. Lu, P. Vodo, S. Sridhar, �??Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,�?? Nature 426, 404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Lu, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, D.W. Prather, �??Experimental demonstration of negative refraction imaging in both amplitude and phase,�?? Opt. Express, 13, 2007-2012 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-2007">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-2007</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Lu, C. Chen, C.A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J.A. Murakowski, G.J. Schneider, D.W. Prather, �??Subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction,�?? Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.
  16. C. Luo, S.G. Johson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, �??All-angle negative refraction in a three-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2352-2354 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. X. Ao, and S. He, �??Three-dimensional photonic crystal of negative refraction achieved by interference lithography,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2542-2544(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Lu, J.A. Murakowski, S. Shi, C.A. Schuetz, G. J. Schneider, and D.W. Prather, �??Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies,�?? Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
  19. S. G. Johnson, and J.D. Joannopoulos, �??Block-iterative frequency-dormain methods for Maxwell�??s equations in a planewave basis,�?? Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K.M. Ho, C.T. Chan, and C.M. Soukoulis, �??Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structure,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, pp. 57-58, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1996.
  22. V.A. Podolskiy, and E.E. Narimanov, �??Near-sight superlens,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, 75 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (393 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (307 KB)     

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited