OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 18 — Sep. 5, 2005
  • pp: 6833–6847

Vectorial, high numerical aperture study of Nomarski�??s differential interference contrast microscope

Peter Munro and Peter Török  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 18, pp. 6833-6847 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.006833


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (342 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

It is well known that vectorial analysis is essential to the study of high numerical aperture (NA) bright field scanning microscopes. We have constructed a high NA, vectorial model of a scanned Di.erential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscope which demonstrates that vectorial analysis is even more important to the study of this device. Our model is valid for coherent illumination and is able to model arbitrary scattering objects through the application of rigorous numerical methods for calculating electromagnetic scattering. We use our model to demonstrate how parameters such as sheer and bias a.ect imaging properties of both confocal and conventional scanning type DIC microscopes.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: July 7, 2005
Revised Manuscript: August 17, 2005
Published: September 5, 2005

Citation
Peter Munro and Peter Török, "Vectorial, high numerical aperture study of Nomarski�??s differential interference contrast microscope," Opt. Express 13, 6833-6847 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-6833


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. D. Lessor, J. Hartman, and R. Gordon, �??Quantitative surface topography determination by Nomarski reflection microscopy. I. Theory,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 357�??366 (1979).
  2. W. Galbraith, �??The image of a point of light in differential interference contrast microscopy: Computer simulation,�?? Microsc. Acta 85, 233�??254 (1982).
  3. T. Holmes and W. Levy, �??Signal-processing characteristics of differential interference-contrast microscopy.�?? Appl. Opt. 26, 3929�??3939 (1987).
  4. C. J. Cogswell and C. Sheppard, �??Confocal differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy: including a theoretical analysis of conventional and confocal DIC imaging,�?? J. Microsc. 165, 81�??101 (1992).
  5. C. Preza, D. Snyder, and J. Conchello, �??Theoretical development and experimental evaluation of imaging models for differential-interference-contrast microscopy,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2185�??2199 (1999).
  6. C. Preza, �??Rotational-diversity phase estimation from differential-interference-contrast microscopy images.�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 415�??424 (2000).
  7. B. Richards and E. Wolf, �??Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,�?? Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 253, 358�??379 (1959).
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, seventh ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
  9. P.Török , P. Higdon, and T.Wilson, �??Theory for confocal and conventional microscopes imaging small dielectric scatterers,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681�??1698 (1998).
  10. P. Munro and P.Török , �??Vectorial, high-numerical-aperture study of phase-contrast microscopes,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1714�??1723 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. P.Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, �??On the general properties of polarising conventional and confocal microscopes,�?? Opt. Commun. 148(4-6), 300�??315 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Taflove and S. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics, second edition (Artech House, 2000).
  13. K. Yee, �??Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell�??s equations in isotropic media,�?? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14(3), 302�??307 (1966). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Török, P. Higdon, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, �??Optimising the image contrast of conventional and confocal optical microscopes imaging finite sized spherical gold scatterers,�?? Opt. Commun. 155(4-6), 335�??341 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Bohren and D. Hu.man, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (Wiley Interscience, 1983).
  16. G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).
  17. P. Török and C. Sheppard, High numerical aperture focusing and imaging (Adam Hilger, (to be published)).
  18. Munro and P. Török, �??Effect of detector size on optical resolution in phase contrast microscopes,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 623�??625 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Multimedia

Multimedia FilesRecommended Software
» Media 1: AVI (816 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (629 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited