OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 19 — Sep. 19, 2005
  • pp: 7645–7652

Highly directional enhanced radiation from sources embedded inside three-dimensional photonic crystals

Humeyra Caglayan, Irfan Bulu, and Ekmel Ozbay  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 19, pp. 7645-7652 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (398 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have experimentally studied emission of microwave radiation from a monopole source embedded in a three-dimensional photonic crystal. We have demonstrated enhancement of microwave radiation at the band edge and cavity mode frequencies. Furthermore, we have shown that it is possible to obtain highly directive microwave radiation sources operating at the band edge of the three-dimensional photonic crystal. We have measured half power beam widths of 13° for both E and H planes, corresponding to a maximum directivity of 245.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: July 18, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 11, 2005
Published: September 19, 2005

Humeyra Caglayan, Irfan Bulu, and Ekmel Ozbay, "Highly directional enhanced radiation from sources embedded inside three-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Express 13, 7645-7652 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. John, �??Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Yablonovitch, �??Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1995.).
  4. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, �??Optical Properties of an Ionic-Type Phononic Crystal,�?? Science 284, 1819 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Temelkuran, M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, and K. M. Ho, �??Photonic crystal-based resonant antenna with a very high directivity,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 87, 603 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Busch and S. John, �??Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tunable Electromagnetic Vacuum,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. F. De Martini, M. Marrocco, P. Mataloni, and D. Murra, �??Spontaneous and stimulated emission in the thresholdless microlaser,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 360 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, J. D.Joannopoulos, K. Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodjeski, and R. Reif, �??Air-bridge microcavities,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. P. L. Gourley, J. R.Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, �??Optical properties of two-dimensional photonic lattices fabricated as honeycomb nanostructures in compound semiconductors,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, �??The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. E. R. Brown, C. D. Parker, and E. Yablonovitch, �??Radiation properties of a planar antenna on a photonic-crystal substrate,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 404 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Busch, N. Vats, S. John, and B. C. Sanders, �??Radiating dipoles in photonic crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. E 62, 4251-4260 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Lousse, J. Vigneron, X. Bouju, and J. Vigoureux, �??Atomic radiation rates in photonic crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. B 64, 201104 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Asatryan, K. Busch, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, C. Martijn de Sterke, and N. A. Nicorovici, �??Two-dimensional Green�??s function and local density of states in photonic crystals consisting of a finite number of cylinders of infinite length,�?? Phys. Rev. E 63, 046612 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. S. John and T. Quang, �??Spontaneous emission near the edge of a photonic band gap,�?? Phys. Rev. A 50, 1764-1769 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. N. Chigrin, �??Radiation pattern of a classical dipole in a photonic crystal: Photon focusing,�?? Phys. Rev. E 70, 056611 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. B. Taylor, H. J. Maris, and C. Elbaum, �??Phonon Focusing in Solids ,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 416 (1969). [CrossRef]
  18. E. R. Brown and O. B. McMahon, �??High zenithal directivity from a dipole antenna on a photonic crystal ,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1300 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. R. Gonzalo, P. de Maagt, and M. Sorolla, �??Enhanced patch-antenna performance by suppressing surface waves using photonic-bandgap substrates,�?? IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47 (11), 2131 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, �??Highly directive radiation from sources embedded inside photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3263 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, �??Radiation properties of sources inside photonic crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. B 67, 205103 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, �??Heavy photons at coupled-cavity waveguide band edges in a three-dimensional photonic crystal ,�?? Phys. Rev. B 62, R2247-R2250 (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Yano, Y. Segawa, J. S. Bae, K. Mizuno, S. Yamaguchi, and K. Ohtaka, �??Optical properties of monolayer lattice and three-dimensional photonic crystals using dielectric spheres,�?? Phys. Rev. B 66, 075119 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. T. Kondo, M. Hangyo, S. Yamaguchi, S. Yano, Y. Segawa, and K. Ohtaka, �??Transmission characteristics of a two-dimensional photonic crystal array of dielectric spheres using subterahertz time domain spectroscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. B 66, 033111 (2002). [CrossRef]
  25. K. Ohtaka, Y. Suda, S. Nagano, T. Ueta, A. Imada, T. Koda, J. S. Bae, K. Mizuno, S. Yano, and Y. Segawa, �??Photonic band effects in a two-dimensional array of dielectric spheres in the millimeter-wave region,�?? Phys.Rev. B 61, 5267 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Ohtaka, J. Inoue, and S. Yamaguti, �?? Derivation of the density of states of leaky photonic bands,�?? Phys. Rev. B 70, 035109 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001).
  28. K. Sakoda and K. Ohtaka, �??Optical response of three-dimensional photonic lattices: Solutions of inhomogeneous Maxwell�??s equations and their applications,�?? Phys. Rev. B 54, 5732 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Wubs and A. Lagendijk, �??Local optical density of states in finite crystals of plane scatterers ,�?? Phys. Rev. E 65, 046612 (2002). [CrossRef]
  30. E. Ozbay, �??Layer-by-layer photonic crystals from microwave to far-infrared frequencies,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1945 (1996). [CrossRef]
  31. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, �??Photonic band gaps in three dimensions:New layer-by-layer periodic structures,�?? Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994). [CrossRef]
  32. E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas,C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, �??Measurement of a three-dimensional photonic band gap in a crystal structure made of dielectric rods ,�?? Phys. Rev. B 50, 1945 (1994). [CrossRef]
  33. S.Noda, K.Tomoda, N.Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, �??Full Three-Dimensional Photonic Bandgap Crystals at Near-Infrared Wavelengths,�?? Science 289, 604 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. Ogawa,M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of Light Emission by 3D Photonic Crystals,�?? Science 305, 227 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, �??Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,�?? IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38 (7), 726 (2002). [CrossRef]
  36. M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, �??Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,�?? Phys. Rev. B 66, 165211 (2002). [CrossRef]
  37. E. Ozbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis and K. M. Ho, �??Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,�?? Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961 (1995). [CrossRef]
  38. B. Temelkuran, E. Ozbay, J. P. Kavanaugh, G. Tuttle, and K. M. Ho, �??Resonant cavity enhanced detectors embedded in photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2376 (1998). [CrossRef]
  39. M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Lin, �??Waveguide bends in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic bandgap materials,�?? Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 23, 56 (1999). [CrossRef]
  40. H. Park, J.Hwang, J. Huh, H. Ryu, S. Kim, J. Kim, and Y.Lee, �??Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,�?? IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38 (10), 1353 (2002). [CrossRef]
  41. M. Agio, E. Lidorikis, and C. M. Soukoulis, �??Impurity modes in a two-dimensional photonic crystal: coupling efficiency and Q factor ,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17 (12), 2037 (2000). [CrossRef]
  42. S. Enoch, B. Gralak, and G. Tayeb, �??Enhanced emission with angular confinement from photonic crystals,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 81 (9), 1588 (2002). [CrossRef]
  43. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley, New York, 1997).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited